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Table 3 Therapeutic applications of BG

From: Bacterial ghosts as adjuvants: mechanisms and potential

Applications Effects/responses References
BG as vehicles of anti-cancer drugs Effective delivery of drugs into cancerous cells, enhanced cytotoxic potential of anti-cancer drugs, suppressed proliferative activities of cancerous cells [95]
BG as carriers of pesticide drugs Treatment showed protective and curative effects against plant pathogens, plants showed significant resistance to rainfall [107]
BG as carriers of immunocontraceptives Evoked humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against ova proteins, significantly reduced super-ovulation and fertilization [108]
BG as immunomodulatory agents in cancer immunotherapy Significant increase in survival rate, significant increase in circulating CD8a+ T cells, significant decrease in metastasis foci area and incidence [109]
BG as carriers of foreign antigens to treat infectious diseases Induced mucosal as well as systemic humoral and CMI responses, protection against infectious diseases [38, 78, 110]
BG as carriers of enzymes, antibiotics and vitamins Protection of the encapsulated substance against premature degradation and immunological reaction, sustained release of the drug, preservation of enzymatic activity [38]
BG as carriers of DNA vaccines Increased DNA transfection efficiencies, increased immunogenicity of DNA-based vaccines, enhanced protective efficacy of DNA vaccines [10, 38]