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Table 1 Bacterial ghosts as candidate vaccines

From: Bacterial ghosts as adjuvants: mechanisms and potential

Candidate vaccine Model/route Response References
A. pleuropneumoniae Pig/i.m; oral; i.n Th1 type immune response, improved protection against lung colonization, vaccine provided protection against carrier state upon homologous aerosol challenge, no clinical side effects [88, 89]
Vibrio cholera Rabbit/i.g Potent generation of serum vibriocidal antibodies and cell mediated immune responses, protection against diarrhea and death following intra lumen challenge with cholera sero groups O1 and O139 [72]
Pasteurella haemolytica
P. multocida
Cattle; mice; rabbit/s.c Humoral response, complete protection against the challenge [96]
E. coli O157:H7 BG Mice/i.g Potent Humoral and CMI responses, protection against lethal heterologous challenge [97]
Edwardsiella trada Fish/i.p Protection against Edwardseilosis [98]
E. coli O78:K80 1 day old chick/i.m; oral Protection against colibacillosis [99]
Klebsiella pneumonia Kpn-3 Piglets Significantly high production of humoral antibody responses, protection against homologous and heterologous strains [15]
S. Enteritidis Chicken/s.c; i.m Salmonella specific IgG and intestinal secretory IgA levels, CMI responses, lower internal egg contamination and reduced colonization of internal organs after challenge [17, 100]
S. Gallinarum Chicken/oral; s.c; i.m Protection against the virulent challenge, systemic and mucosal antibody response, potent CD4 and CD8+ responses [71, 101]
S. Typhimurium Chicken/i.m Salmonella specific IgG and sIgA antibody responses, reduced internal organ colonization after challenge [102]
Brucella suis Mice/i.p Induced pathogen-specific serum IgG antibody response, humoral and CMI responses, protection against challenge [103]
  1. i.g: intragastrically, i.m: intramuscular, i.n: intranasal, i.p: intraperitoneally, s.c: subcutaneous.