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Table 3 Clostridium difficile isolates from environmental samples and their molecular characterization

From: Identification of risk factors influencing Clostridium difficile prevalence in middle-size dairy farms

Environmental samples C. difficile culture results C. difficile strain characterization
Winter Spring Summer Autumn All year Ribotypes Toxinotypes
Manure 4/20 (20%) 7/20 (35%) 5/20 (25%) 7/20 (35%) 23/80 (28.7%) 001/072, 002, 014/020, 023, 033, 077, SLO 036, SLO 053, SLO 060 0, IV, XIa, XIc (new)
Soil 5/20 (25%) 8/20 (40%) 7/20 (35%) 8/20 (40%) 28/80 (35%) 001/072, 012, 014/020, 018, 023, 033, 081, SLO 025, SLO 057, SLO 060, SLO 063 0, IV, XIa, XIc (new), tox-
Silage/hay 0/20 (0%) 1/20 (5%) 0/20 (0%) 2/20 (10%) 3/80 (3.75%) 001/072, 003, SLO 116 0, tox-
Water 1/20 (5%) 0/20 (0%) 1/20 (5%) 1/20 (5%) 3/80 (3.75%) 014/020, SLO 036 0, XIa
Other animals on farms 1 (2 strains)/32 (3.1%)–adult rooster 0/33 (0%) 1/24 (4.2%)–rooster 2 weeks 0/26 (0%) 2/115 (1.7%) 045, SLO 060, SLO 196 (new) V, XIa, tox-
Barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) / / 0/20 (0%) / 0/20 (0%)   
Stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans) / / 2/20 (10%) / 2/20 (10%) 033 XIc (new)
Total 11 (12)/112 (9.8%) 16/113 (14.2%) 16/144 (11.1%) 18/106 (17%) 61/475 (12.8%)