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Table 4 Cytokines mRNA expression levels normalized to ACTB in non-challenged and 24 hpc ETEC F4 pigs treated with probiotics or antibiotics1.

From: Administration of probiotics influences F4 (K88)-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli attachment and intestinal cytokine expression in weaned pigs

Gene Mean cytokine mRNA expression level in the ileum P-value
  CTRL ATB PA SCB PA + SCB T Ch T×Ch
IL-6 (10 -4 )
24 hpc 0.9ac
[0.3-3.1]
1.1ac
[0.3-3.6]
3.5d
[1.1-11.3]
0.6
[0.2-1.9]
3.9b
[1.2-12.7]
0.33 0.47 0.29
Not Ch 0.8
[0.2-3.2]
1.7
[0.4-7.4]
0.9
[0.2-3.8]
1.2
[0.3-5.0]
1.2
[0.3-5.0]
   
TNF-α- (10 -3 )
24 hpc 1.28c
[0.38-4.32]
2.94
[0.94-9.19]
3.87
[1.24-12.09]
1.65
[0.49-5.56]
5.28d
[1.69-16.48]
0.24 0.59 0.85
Not Ch 1.59
[0.46-5.52]
4.40
[1.10-17.52]
4.53
[1.31-15.73]
3.04
[0.88-10.54]
3.03
[0.87-10.51]
   
pBD-2
24 hpc 0.025c
[0.013-0.05]
0.045
[0.024-0.085]
0.053d
[0.028-0.1]
0.05
[0.025-0.1]
0.041
[0.021-0.077]
0.33 0.83 0.88
Not Ch 0.027c
[0.01-0.068]
0.040
[0.015-0.11]
0.034
[0.013-0.088]
0.065d
[0.026-0.17]
0.043
[0.017-0.11]
   
IL-12p35
24 hpc 0.018c
[0.007-0.046]
0.029
[0.012-0.069]
0.059d
[0.025-0.142]
0.017
[0.006-0.042]
0.027
[0.011-0.065]
0.31 0.59 0.65
Not Ch 0.011
[0.003-0.038]
0.033
[0.008-0.13]
0.022
[0.006-0.074]
0.025
[0.007-0.085]
0.025
[0.007-0.091]
   
IL-8
24 hpc 11.59
[1.29-104,14]
16.86
[2.12-133.91]
6.46
[0.81-51.3]
6.41
[0.71-57.63]
10.08
[1.27-80.04]
0.48 0.003 0.68
Not Ch 0.59a
[0.08-4.47]
3.79b
[0.44-32.9]
1.62
[0.21-12.36]
3.12b
[0.41-23.73]
3.55b
[0.44-28.63]
   
IFN-γ- (10 -4 )
24 hpc 0.6
[0.1-2.7]
0.9
[0.2-3.7]
0.4
[0.1-1.7]
0.9
[0.2-3.7]
1.6
[0.4-6.6]
0.26 0.07 0.88
Not Ch 2.9
[0.6-13.5]
1.8
[0.3-9.2]
0.7
[0.2-3.5]
1.2
[0.3-5.7]
3.0
[0.6-14.1]
   
IL-10
24 hpc 0.2
[0.05-0.77]
0.29
[0.08-1]
0.22
[0.06-0.77]
0.09
[0.02-0.32]
0.45
[0.13-1.57]
0.39 0.85 0.47
Not Ch 0.15
[0.05-0.45]
0.38
[0.12-1.25]
0.13
[0.04-0.37]
0.25
[0.08-0.72]
0.24
[0.08-0.73]
   
  1. 1Definition of acronyms: CTRL = No probiotic and no antibiotic; ATB = tiamulin and chlortetracycline; PA = P. acidilactici; SCB = S. cerevisiae boulardii; PA + SCB = a mixture of the two probiotics; IL = interleukin; IFN = interferon; TNF = tumor necrosis factor; pBD-2 = porcine β-defensin-2; COX-2 = cyclooxygenase-2; T = Treatment effect; Ch = ETEC challenge effect.
  2. 2Data are presented as the mean of target copy number/ACTB copy number with the range of values for a 95% confidence interval within brackets.
  3. a, bMeans within rows are significantly different (P ≤ 0.05).
  4. c, dMeans within rows tend to be different (P ≤ 0.10).
  5. Challenge group: n = 8/treatment, except for S. cerevisiae boulardii and CTRL group, n = 7.
  6. Not challenged group: n = 8/treatment, except for ATB group, n = 7.