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Table 1 Summary of the most relevant results regarding pathological findings (clinical signs and lesions), serological and molecular results (parasite detection) in experimentally infected groups (A and B), and naturally infected group with an acute infection (group C)

From: Identification of molecular biomarkers associated with disease progression in the testis of bulls infected with Besnoitia besnoiti

Study group1
(Natural infection -N-/Experimental infection -E-)
Bull (B)/calf (C) number Infection stage Clinical signs and lesions Serological results Parasite detection
Systemic level Macroscopic/microscopic lesions in the testicles IgM/IgG/ IgG avidity PCR2 Histopathology3
A (E) C1-34 Subclinical Congestive ocular sclera, conjunctival cysts 5/Inflammatory infiltrate  + / + / low avidity + / − / −6
C4-6 Congestive ocular sclera, conjunctival cysts –/Inflammatory infiltrate and oedemas  + / + / low avidity − / − / −
C7-9 Congestive ocular sclera, conjunctival cysts, skin lesions –/Skin lesions, inflammatory infiltrate and oedemas  + / + / low avidity  + / + / +  131,5 TP; 156,1 SK
B (E) C1-3 Non-infected Without clinical signs or lesions Without lesions − / − / n.a −/−/−
C (N) B1 Acute Fever and edema in posterior limbs Orchitis/Vascular lesions, inflammatory infiltrate, lesion on scrotal skin, fibroplasia, aspermia  + / + / low avidity  + / – / +  50.0 SK
B2 Respiratory problems, edema in the area of the scapula nd /Vascular lesions, inflammatory infiltrate, lesion on scrotal skin, fibroplasia, aspermia No serum available − / + / +  97.1 PP/20.0 TP/90.7 SK
B3 Edema in declining areas Orchitis/Vascular lesions, inflammatory infiltrate No serum available  + / + / + 
B4 nd Orchitis and vascular lesions/Vascular lesions, inflammatory infiltrate, lesion on scrotal skin, fibroplasia, aspermia  + / – /na  + / + / + 
B5 nd Vascular lesions and adherences in testicles/Vascular lesions, inflammatory infiltrate  + / – /na  + / + / + 
B6 Fever Orchitis and vascular lesions/Vascular lesions, inflammatory infiltrate, aspermia  + / – /na − / + / +  25.0 SK
B7 Fever Orchitis and vascular lesions/Vascular lesions, inflammatory infiltrate, fibroplasia  + / – /na − / + / + 
  1. nd, not determined; na, not applicable.
  2. 1More detailed data on these selected naturally and experimentally infected animals can be found in González-Barrio et al. [11], and Diezma-Diaz et al. [17, 20, 21].
  3. 2 + or – mean that pampiniform plexus, testicular parenchyma and scrotal skin are Besnoitia spp. PCR positive or negative, respectively.
  4. 3Average cyst diameter (μm) in SK (scrotal skin), PP (pampiniform plexus), TP (testicular parenchyma); –cysts not found.
  5. 4Calves C1–3 were inoculated by intravenous route, calves C4-6 were inoculated by subcutaneous route and calves C7-9 were inoculated by intradermal route.
  6. 5– macroscopic lesions not found.
  7. 6 + or − mean at least one animal per group was PCR positive or negative, respectively.