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Table 1 Comparison between 2 and 3D cultures for generating liver in vitro liver models

From: Liver organoids in domestic animals: an expected promise for metabolic studies

  2D culture 3D culture
Morphology Monolayer Organized aggregates with multiple layers
Amplification Easy and convenient More complex
Stable long-term cultures
Differentiation Directed but limited on flat and surface
Constrained morphogenesis
Feasibility of mixed 3D structures of hepatoblast, mesenchymal and vascular cells
Genes and Proteins Hepatoblast and hepatocyte with embryonic phenotypes More mature hepatocytes—adult-like phenotypes
Advantages Fast and rapid establishment
Relatively inexpensive,
Well adapted to high throughput capacity
Partially mimicking the in vivo microenvironment
Reproducing the apical-basal polarity in multicellular structures
Control of factor gradient by microfluidic approaches
Disadvantages Flat surface
Automatic apical-basal polarity not mimicking the tissue structure
Costly and more laborious
High throughput capacity to be optimized
  1. Such analysis can be extrapolated for other organoid models as well.