HcESPs significantly affected cell viability and promoted T cell apoptosis. A Treatment with HcESPs significantly inhibited T cell viability. Cell viability tests were performed by CCK-8 incorporation, and the cell viability index was determined by setting the OD450 values of the control group as 100%. B Flow cytometry analysis of T cell apoptosis in response to HcESPs. Apoptosis of T cells was determined by staining with Annexin V-PE and 7-AAD. The apoptosis rate was calculated from the percentage of early (AnnexinV+7AAD−) and late (AnnexinV+7AAD+) apoptotic T cells. C The mRNA transcripts of candidate genes in T cells stimulated with HcESPs. The results presented here are representative of three independent experiments. The data are presented as the mean ± SD, minimum to maximum; *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001, ****P < 0.0001 vs the control group.