Influence of mpIL-11 on PEDV replication. Vero E6 cells were inoculated with PEDV at a MOI of 0.1, followed by pIL-11 (range from 1 to 400 ng) stimulation for 18 h. A Virus titers in the culture supernatant were measured using plaque assay. B Infection of Vero E6 cells with PEDV at 24 hpi was confirmed using Western blotting. C IL-11 shRNA verification. The IL-11 targeting shRNA significantly inhibited IL-11 expression in Vero E6 cells, which was verified using Western blotting. D, E IL-11 knockdown enhances PEDV infection. Vero E6 cells were transfected with shRNA targeting IL-11 or control (scrambled) shRNA, following infection with PEDV. Viral infection results at 24 hpi are presented. NC, KD1 and KD2 represent Vero E6 cells transfected with shRNA-negative control, shIL-11-1 and shIL-11-2, respectively. D The extracellular virus titers were measured using plague assay. E The expression of PEDV-N protein was analyzed through Western blotting using specific antibodies, as described in the Materials and methods section. F, G Vero E6 cells expressing either shIL-11-1 or control shRNA were treated with pIL-11, followed by infection with PEDV (MOI 0.1) for 24 h. E Viral RNA level and F titers of different groups were detected by qPCR and plaque assay. Data are presented as the mean ± SD of three independent experiments. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01.