Inhibitory effects of methyl gallate (MG) on adhesion, invasion, and intracellular survival of Salmonella Typhimurium alone and in combination with a sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of marbofloxacin (MRB). A Effect of MG alone and in combination with sub-MIC of MRB on adhesion of Salmonella Typhimurium; B effect of MG alone and in combination with sub-MIC of MRB on the invasion of Salmonella Typhimurium on Caco-2 cells; C invasion of Raw 264.7 cells, D effect of MG alone and in combination with sub-MIC of MRB on the intracellular survival of Salmonella Typhimurium in Raw 264.7 cells; E dose-dependent inhibition of invasion by MG; F inhibition of invasion by MG on two different field isolates of Salmonella Typhimurium. The upper figures show the percentage of inhibition. Cell, uninfected and non-treated control; Salmonella, infected with Salmonella Typhimurium but left untreated; Sub-MIC and MIC, controls treated with the sub-MIC and MIC of MRB; MG-30, treated with 30 µg/mL of methyl gallate alone; MGM, treatment with a combination of methyl gallate (30 µg/mL) and sub-MIC of MRB; MG-100, treated with 100 µg/mL of methyl gallate alone. Results represent the mean ± SEM (n = 8; *P-value < 0.05; **P-value < 0.01; ***P-value < 0.001).