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TableĀ 1 Some of the most explored antibiotic alternatives with the potential of feasible usages within the animal production chain

From: Innovative drugs, chemicals, and enzymes within the animal production chain

Alternative Mode of action Advantages Challenges Continuous use
Drugs targeting quorum-sensing The disruption of bacterial quorum-sensing Specific targets Expensive No, as concerns for developing resistance do exist
Recombinant enzymes Varying mechanisms that span the generation of H2O2 to the enhancement of dietary protein digestibility Varying targets with the possibility of combining more than one mechanism in parallel Expensive Yes, without any concerns of resistance-development
Phytochemicals/botanicals Varying mechanisms Low costs Varying outcomes and efficiencies Yes, without any concerns of resistance development
Minerals Production of hydroxyl radicals and/or reactive oxygen species Most effective High concentrations are needed No as concerns for environmental contaminations with heavy metals exist
Organic acids/acidifiers The un-dissociated acids diffuse across cell-membranes destroying the cytoplasm of pathogens or inhibiting their growth Low costs Varying outcomes and efficiencies based on the used compound Yes, without any concerns of resistance-development
Yeast cell walls and mannan-oligosaccharides Inhibit the adherence of bacterial cells Low costs Not fully validated/tested Yes, without any concerns of resistance-development