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Table 1 Currently available quantifiable biomarkers for evaluation of intestinal health in poultry

From: Biomarkers for monitoring intestinal health in poultry: present status and future perspectives

Source Reference values available
Intestinal tissue biopsies
 Villus length Yes [30]
 Crypt depth Yes [30]
 Villus/crypt ratio Yes [30]
 L-cell density No
 T-lymphocytes in propria mucosae No
Blood and liver
 Total bacterial count in liver No
 d-lactate in blood No
 Diaminoxidase in blood No
Caecal content/faeces
 Firmicutes No
 Enterobacteriaceae No
 Acetate-CoA butyrate-CoA transferase/bisulfite reductase Q-PCR No
 Butyrate No