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Table 2 Summary of the most important differences and similarities between African swine fever (ASF) and classical swine fever (CSF)

From: African and classical swine fever: similarities, differences and epidemiological consequences

  ASF CSF Both diseases
 Virus taxonomy and morphology Large DNA virus Small RNA virus  
 Clinical signs and pathology   Among others high fever, appetite loss, lethargy, erythema, petechiae
 Immune response and vaccination Lack of neutralizing antibodies, no or insufficient cross-protection among strains, protection linked to cytotoxic T-cell responses
No vaccination available
Existence of neutralizing antibodies, cross-protection among genotypes, safe and efficacious vaccines available  
 Transmission and contagiosity   Direct and indirect transmission
Most effective with blood contact, no evidence for intrauterine transmission Virus shedding with all se- and excretions, intrauterine transmission and resulting persistent infection of fetuses possible  
 Vectors and carriers   Wild boar important reservoir
Transmission through ticks possible No transmission through arthropods or rodents described  
 Tenacity   Long infectivity in cold environmental temperatures
History and today’s distribution For long time only endemic in Africa and Sardinia since 2007 present in Europe Long-term epidemics in wild boar over the last decades, sporadic occurrence in domestic pigs; currently no outbreaks in domestic pigs, no cases reported in wild boar  
Prevention and control measures No vaccination Effective vaccination  
  High biosecurity, no swill feeding, no contact between domestic pigs and wild boar