Mouse immunization and bleeding schedule. Each mouse was immunized either with crude extracts containing 0.1 µg (H5 oligomer or H5-S·Tag) formulated with the Emulsigen®-D adjuvant at 20% final concentration (two experimental groups) or with N. benthamiana wild type leaf extracts or S·Protein-TP leaf extracts formulated with the Emulsigen®-D adjuvant at 20% final concentration (negative control groups). Comparable leaf protein amounts were in applied to each mouse. Twelve mice per group were vaccinated with the formulated vaccines at days 0, 14 and 28. One week after the 2nd and 3rd immunizations, mice were bled via the retro-orbital sinus.