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Table 2 The viral sensing PRR in birds

From: Innate sensing of viruses by pattern recognition receptors in birds

Viral sensing   TLR3 TLR7 TLR15 TLR21 RIG-I MDA5 (IFIH1) LGP2
receptors         
Downstream Antiviral Genes   TypeIIFN (IFN-β) IFNα, IL-1β, PKR, OAS (HPAIV-infected goose) IL-1β IL-1, IL-6 IFN-β, IFN-stimulated antiviral genes IFN-β IFN-β
Chicken Genbank accession No. NM_001011691; EF137861; DQ780341; JF273967; GU904961.1(emu); XM_002190852.1 (zebra finch). NM_001011688; GU904977(emu); XM_002194896 (zebra finch). NM_001037835.1; HM773174.1; HM773175.1; HM773176.1; DQ267901.1; JN544181.1; JN544182.1; JN544183.1; JN544184.1; JN544185.1; JN544186.1; JN544187.1; JN544188.1; JN544189.1; JQ042910.1; JQ042911.1; JQ042912.1; JQ042913.1; JQ042914.1; Absent NM_001193638; JN376086; AB371640; GU570144. HQ845773
Ligand dsRNA poly(I:C) R848 Poly(U)RNA loxoribine B- and C-type CpG ODNs CpG ODNs dsRNA poly(I:C) dsRNA poly(I:C)
Involved in virus infection HPAI (H5N1) [37] LPAI (H7N1, H6N2) [45, 46] MD [43] IBD [44] MD [43] IBD [44] MD [32, 33] Not reported HPAI [86] LPAI [45] HPAI [86]
Duck Genbank accession No. JQ910167 (muscovy duck) DQ888644 (mallard) Not reported Not reported EU363349 (mallard) GU936632 (mallard) Not reported
Ligand dsRNA poly(I:C) ssPolyU/Lyove loxoribine imiquimod 5′ppp RNA Unknown
Involved in virus infection HPAI (H5N1) [21] HPAI (H5N1) [56] LPAI (H11N9) [57] HPAI (H5N1) [75, 7880] Unknown
Goose Genbank accession No. Not reported JQ910168 JQ014619.1 Not reported HQ829831 (domestic goose) Not reported Not reported
Ligand Not reported Not reported 5′ppp RNA
Involved in virus infection HPAI (H5N1) [26] Not reported ND [76]
  1. 1 Anas platyrhynchos (mallard); Anser anser (domestic goose); Cairina moschata (Muscovy duck); Dromaius novaehollandiae (emu); Gallus gallus (chicken); Taeniopygia guttata (zebra finch).
  2. 2 HPAI: Highly pathogenic avian influenza; LPAI: Low pathogenic avian influenza; IBD: Infectious bursal disease; MD: Marek’s disease; ND: Newcastle disease.