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Table 2 Potential hosts of Leptospira in the western Indian Ocean islands.

From: Leptospirosis in the western Indian Ocean islands: what is known so far?

Species Geographic location Sensitive(1)(S) or resistant(2)(R) Main clinical signs Asymptomatic chronic shedding Economic significance Existing data on leptospirosis in the Indian Ocean region
Primates       
Humans All islands S (asymptomatic forms are frequent) Fever, myalgias, headache, chills, oliguria/anuria, jaundice, conjunctive suffusions, aseptic meningitis, hemorrhages, skin rash, renal and hepatic failure, severe pulmonary hemorrhagic syndrome Yes Medical costs, absence from work, mortality [1935]
Brown lemur (Eulemur fulvus) Mayotte, Madagascar Nd Nd Nd Nd [15]
Crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis) Mauritius Nd Nd Nd Nd No
Mongoose lemur (Eulemur mongoz) Comoros, Madagascar Nd Nd Nd Nd No
Rodents       
Black rat (Rattus rattus) All islands R Absent Yes Cost of control (traps, poison, time) [15, 17, 36, 37]
Norway rat (R. norvegicus) Reunion, Mauritius, Seychelles, Madagascar R Absent Yes Cost of control (traps, poison, time) [17, 36]
Domestic mouse (Mus musculus) All islands R Absent Yes Cost of control (traps, poison, time) [17, 36]
Terrestrial insectivores       
Shrew (Suncus murinus) Mauritius, Reunion, Comoros, Madagascar R Absent Yes Cost of control (traps, poison, time) [17, 36]
Tenrec (Tenrec ecaudatus) Reunion, Mayotte, Comoros, Mauritius, Seychelles, Madagascar Nd Nd Not proved Nd [17, 38]
Carnivores       
Small Indian civet (Viverricula indica) Mayotte, Madagascar Nd Nd Nd Nd [37]
Dog(Canis lupus familiaris) All islands R or S* Fever, oliguria/anuria, jaundice, haemorrhages, renal and hepatic failure Yes Cost of control of the stray populations [15, 17, 19]
Cat (Felis catus) All islands R or S* Mild, non-specific signs Yes Cost of control of the stray populations [17]
Livestock       
Cattle (Bos taurus) All islands R or S* Reproductive failure Yes Poor reproductive results, abortion, neonatal morbidity [17, 19, 20, 37, 3941] Pasteur Institute (unpublished data)
Goat (Capra hircus) All islands R or S* Reproductive failure Yes Poor reproductive results, abortion, neonatal morbidity [17, 37]
Swine (Sus scrofa) All islands R or S* Reproductive failure Yes   [17, 19, 20]
Rusa deer (Timorensis rusa) Reunion, Mauritius R or S* Reproductive failure Yes Poor reproductive results, abortion, neonatal morbidity [17]
Equine       
Horse (Equus ferus) All islands R or S* Acute form, reproductive failure, chronic uveitis Nd Cost of veterinary care, abortion, neonatal morbidity [19, 41]
Bats       
Free-tailed bat (Mormopterus francoismoutoui) Reunion Probably R Nd Yes Nd [17]
Seychelles flying-fox (Pteropus seychellensis) Mayotte, Comoros, Seychelles Probably R Nd Nd Nd [15, 37]
Peters’s wrinkle-lipped bat (Mormopterus jugularis) Madagascar Probably R Nd Nd Nd [42]
Madagascar free-tailed bat (Otomops madagascariensis) Madagascar Probably R Nd Nd Nd [42]
Trouessart’s trident bat (Triaenops furculum)s Madagascar Probably R Nd Nd Nd [42]
Trident bats (Triaenops menamena) Madagascar Probably R Nd Nd Nd [42]
Glen’s long-fingered bat (Miniopterus gleni) Madagascar Probably R Nd Nd Nd [42]
Miniopterus griffithsi Madagascar Probably R Nd Nd Nd [42]
Miniopterus mahafaliensis Madagascar Probably R Nd Nd Nd [42]
Malagasy mouse-eared bat (Myotis goudoti) Madagascar Probably R Nd Nd Nd [42]
Comoro rousette (Rousettus obliviosus) Comoros Probably R Nd Nd Nd [42]
Western Seychelles Free-tailed bat (Chaerephon pusillus) Mayotte, Comoros Probably R Nd Nd Nd [42]
Miniopterus griveaudi Comoros, Madagascar Probably R Nd Nd Nd [42]
  1. (1) The animal is infected and shows clinical signs of the disease.
  2. (2) The animal is infected without clinical signs of the disease.
  3. * These species are generally asymptomatic, but some Leptospira strains can induce acute forms of the disease (e.g. Icterohaemorrhagiae in dog or in horse).
  4. Nd: no data.