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Table 3 Distribution of specific lesions in tissues of naturally WNV infected birds

From: Pathology and tissue tropism of natural West Nile virus infection in birds: a review

Order* ANSE CHAR CICO FALC GALL PASS PELE PHOE PSIT STRI
Family♦ ANAT LARI ARDE ACCI FALC PHAS CORV LANI PASS PHAL PHOE PSIT STRI
Reference [25, 71, 124] [71] [71] [20, 26, 42, 71, 89, 91, 117, 119] [20, 42] [71, 83, 122] [71, 80, 118, 120] [81] [121] [71] [71] [87, 123] [42, 66, 71, 79, 82, 90, 91, 119]
TISSUE/Lesion              
BRAIN              
Neuronal necrosis-degeneration + - ND + - - - - - - - - +
Neuronal vacuolization - + ND + - + + - - + - - -
Meningeal inflammatory infiltrates + - ND + - - + - - + - - +
Gliosis + + ND + + + + + - - + + +
Perivascular cuffs + + ND + - + + + + - + + +
Glial nodules + + ND + - + + + - - + - +
Vasculitis - - ND + - - + - + - - - -
Hemorrhage - - ND - - + - - - + - - +
SPINAL CORD              
Neuronal necrosis-degeneration + ND ND - ND ND ND NT ND ND ND ND +
Inflammatory infiltrates + ND ND + ND ND ND NT ND ND ND ND +
EYE              
Retinal cell necrosis NT NT NT + NT NT ND NT NT NT NT - -
Inflammatory infiltrates NT NT NT + NT NT ND NT NT NT NT + +
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM              
Inflammatory infiltrates ND ND ND + NT ND - NT NT ND ND ND +
HEART              
Myofibril necrosis + - - + - + + - - - - + +
Myocytolisis-mineralization + + + + - + + - - + + + -
Inflammatory infiltrates + + + + + + + + - + + + +
Vasculitis - - - - + - + - - - - - -
Hemorrhage - + + + - + + - - + + + -
SPLEEN              
Lymphoid cell necrosis/apoptosis + ND + + - + + + - + ND + +
Fibrin deposition - ND + - - + - + - + ND - +
Lymphoid cell depletion - ND - + - - - - - - ND - +
Hemosiderosis + ND - + - + + - + - ND - +
Hemorrhage + ND + - - - - - - + ND - -
LIVER              
Hepatocyte necrosis - ND ND + - - + + + + + + +
Kupffer cell necrosis - ND ND - - - + - - - - - -
Inflammatory infiltrates - ND ND + + + + + - - - + +
Vasculitis - ND ND - + - - - - - - - -
LIVER              
Biliary duct hyperplasia - ND ND + - - - - - - + - -
Hemosiderosis - ND ND + - + + - + - - - +
Hemorrhage - ND ND + - - + - - - - - -
KIDNEY              
Tubular epithelial cell necrosis - ND - + - - + ND + - - + +
Glomerular cell necrosis - ND - - - - - ND - - - + +
Inflammatory infiltrates + ND + + + + + ND + + + + +
Vasculitis - ND - - + - - ND - - - - -
Hemorrhage + ND - - - - - ND - - - - -
LUNG              
Cellular necrosis - ND ND + - - + - - ND ND - +
Inflammatory infiltrates - ND ND + - + + - + ND ND - +
Vasculitis - ND ND - - - + - - ND ND - -
Edema - ND ND + + - - + + ND ND - -
GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT              
Enterocyte necrosis - ND ND - - - + - ND - - - +
Intestinal crypt cell necrosis - ND ND - - - + + ND + + + +
Inflammatory infiltrates - ND ND + - + + - ND - - + +
Hemorrhage + ND ND - - - + - ND - + - -
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM              
Pancreatic acinar cell necrosis + ND ND - ND + - + ND - + + +
Pancreatic inflammatory infiltrates - ND ND + ND + - - ND + + + +
Adrenal gland cell necrosis ND ND ND - NT ND - NT NT ND ND + -
Adrenal inflammatory infiltrates ND ND ND + NT ND + NT NT ND ND + +
Thyroid gland cell necrosis + NT NT - NT NT NT NT NT NT NT ND ND
Thyroid inflammatory infiltrates - NT NT + NT NT NT NT NT NT NT ND ND
OTHER LYMPHOID ORGANS
Bursal epithelial cell atrophy-apoptosis - NT NT + NT NT NT NT - NT NT ND +
Bursal lymphoid cell atrophy-apoptosis - NT NT + NT NT NT NT + NT NT ND +
Thymic lymphoid cell necrosis + NT NT NT NT NT NT NT NT NT NT - +
GONADS              
Cellular necrosis ND ND ND - - ND NT ND NT ND ND - +
Inflammatory infiltrates ND ND ND - - ND NT ND NT ND ND - +
SKELETAL MUSCLE              
Myofibril degeneration-necrosis ND NT NT + - - ND NT NT NT NT + +
Inflammatory infiltrates ND NT NT + + + ND NT NT NT NT + +
Fibrosis ND NT NT + - - ND NT NT NT NT - +
SKIN              
Inflammatory infiltrates NT NT NT ND NT NT NT ND NT NT NT + -
BONE MARROW              
Cellular necrosis NT NT NT ND NT - + NT NT NT NT ND ND
Hypercellularity NT NT NT ND NT + - NT NT NT NT ND ND
  1. *ANSE Anseriformes, CHAR Charadriiformes, CICO Ciconiiformes, FALC Falconiformes, GALL Galliformes, PASS Passeriformes, PELE Pelecaniformes, PHOE Phoenicopteriformes, PSIT Psittaciformes, STRI Sitrigiformes.
  2. ANAT Anatidae, LARI Laridae, ARDE Ardeidae, ACCI Accipitridae, FALC Falconidae, PHAS Phasianidae, CORV Corvidae, LANI Laniidae, PASS Passeridae, PHAL Phalacrocoracidae, PHOE Phoenicopteridae, PSIT Psittacidae, STRI Strigidae.
  3. ND: No described lesion. Tissues that were taken during necropsy but for which there are no lesions described.
  4. NT: Tissue not tested. Tissue not analyzed in the necropsy.
  5. + Lesion present. Lesion described by at least one author for the tissue.
  6. - Lesion absent. Lesion stated as absent or not specifically described by any author for the tissue.