Intranasal inoculation of sows with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus at mid-gestation causes transplacental infection of fetuses
© Wang et al. 2015
Received: 26 May 2015
Accepted: 20 November 2015
Published: 29 December 2015
Transplacental infection plays a critical role in the reproductive failure induced by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), yet exposure of sows and gilts to classical PRRSV generally leads to reproductive failure after 85 days of gestation. We report, for the first time, that the susceptibility of fetuses to highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) is similar at 60 days and 90 days of gestation. This difference from classical PRRSV may contribute to its high pathogenicity. A field study of the HP-PRRSV vaccine in pregnant sows at mid-gestation should be considered.
Introduction, methods and results
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), is one of the most severe swine diseases leading to great economic losses worldwide. PRRSV is an enveloped, single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus, belonging to the family Arteriviridae in the order Nidovirales. The genome of PRRSV is approximately 15 kb in length and contains at least 10 open reading frames encoding 8 structural proteins and 13–16 nonstructural proteins (nsps) [1, 2]. The nsp2 gene is the most highly variable region of the genome and contributes to the virulence and genotype of PRRSV [3, 4]. In 2006, a highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) was identified in China, causing great concern in the global swine industry . HP-PRRSV is genetically characterized by a unique discontinuous 30-amino-acid deletion in nsp2 gene [6, 7]. HP-PRRS caused by HP-PRRSV is characterized by high fever (41–42 °C), high illness rates (50–100%), high death rates (20–100%), and high abortion rates (40%), resulting in devastating economic losses [5–7]. To date, HP-PRRSV has been found in North, East, and South Asia [8–10].
Reproductive failure is one of the prominent clinical manifestations of PRRS, and pregnant sows exposed to PRRSV give birth to dead, stillborn, or mummified fetuses. Persistent uterine infection contributes to reproductive failure in sows. The ability of the virus to cross the placental barrier is critical for fetal infection because pig embryos are not susceptible to PRRSV prior to implantation [11, 12]. The ability to cross the placenta is strain-dependent; for example, the Spanish PRRSV strain 5710 has been shown to infect 20-day-old embryos when gilts were exposed at the onset of gestation . In contrast, sows infected with a Danish isolate of PRRSV had the highest transplacental transmission rate at day 85 of gestation, with less transmission at day 72 of gestation, and none on day 45 of gestation . Furthermore, it has been reported that a Danish vaccine strain (19407B) of PRRSV caused congenital infection, fetal death, and pre-weaning piglet mortality after it was administered intranasally to sows . Another two European-type modified-live-virus vaccine strains, VP-046 Bis and All-183, can also cross the placenta and result in congenital infection of piglets at birth . The typical type II isolate ATCC VR-2332 causes reproductive failure in 93-day-pregnant sows but does not induce reproductive failure when administered at mid-term gestation [17, 18]. Although the capacity for transplacental infection varies, classical PRRSV cause transplacental infection with consequent abortion predominantly when the sows are exposed during late gestation. However, it is unclear whether the newly emerged HP-PRRSV has an enhanced ability to cross the placenta.
To investigate the ability of HP-PRRSV to cross the placenta, 30 cross-bred Landrace × Large White gilts were obtained from a PRRSV-free herd and tested using both RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to confirm that they were PRRSV-negative. The gilts were artificially inseminated and randomly allocated to one of two control groups (n = 6 sows/group) or one of two treatment groups (n = 9 sows/group). Inoculums from uninfected cell cultures were used to sham-infect the two control groups at 60 and 90 days of gestation, respectively. The two treatment groups were inoculated intranasally at day 60 and 90 of gestation, respectively, with 106 median tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) of HP-PRRSV strain TA-12 collected from HP-PRRSV infected Marc-145 cells (GenBank HQ417620). Clinical signs of PRRSV infection, including reduced appetite, low energy, and high fever, were observed from 3 days post infection (dpi). Two sows in the day 90 infected group aborted at 13 dpi and 17 dpi, corresponding to gestation days 103 and 107, respectively. All the sows in the sham-inoculation control groups remained clinically normal.
To exclude the possibility that fetal infection was influenced by differences in sow susceptibility to the virus, the viral loads in the spleens, brains, lungs, and uteri of infected and sham-infected sows at 7 dpi were determined using qRT-PCR. There were no differences in the viral loads among any of the organs examined (data not shown), which suggests that we successfully developed an animal model suitable for the study of transplacental infection by HP-PRRSV.
Conventional RT-PCR targeting the nsp2 gene was employed to assess infection status. Detection of the 680-bp nsp2 gene is more specific than detection of the N gene because it is less abundantly expressed. The fetal infection status was evaluated by detecting the nsp2 gene in fetal spleens. Total splenic RNA were extracted with TRIzol Reagent (Life Technologies, Gaithersburg, MD, USA) and tested with a one-step RNA PCR kit, using primers specific for the nsp2 gene (forward primer 5′-AGACCAGATGGAGGAGGATCTGC-3′; reverse primer 5′-AGTCGATGATGGCTTGAGCTGAG-3′). In the 60-day infection group, 42.9 (12/28) and 46.7% (14/30) of the fetuses examined were infected at 7 and 14 dpi, respectively. In the day 90 infected group, 41.7 (10/24) and 60% (12/20) of fetuses were positive for HP-PRRSV at 7 and 14 dpi, respectively. In the litters that were aborted at 13 and 17 dpi, the fetal infection rates were 63.6% (7 of 11 fetuses) and 50% (5 of 10 fetuses), respectively. Sows infected with HP-PRRSV at 60 days of gestation had a similar proportion of infected fetuses: 16 of 25 (64%) fetuses were infected at 21 dpi compared with 14 of 24 (58%) fetuses from sows infected at 90 days of gestation. These results demonstrate that fetuses from the 60-day and 90-day infected groups did not differ in their fetal infection rates.
Another way to evaluate the capacity of HP-PPRSV for placental infection is to determine the viral load in the fetal organs. The organs (spleen, thymus, lung, liver, heart, and kidney) of all fetuses were tested for the virus with qRT–PCR and their viral loads were compared among groups (Figure 2). The spleens of fetuses in the day 60 infected group contained significantly more virus than those from fetuses in the day 90 infected group at 7 and 21 dpi. At 14 dpi, the thymuses of fetuses in the day 60 infected group contained significantly more virus than those from fetuses in the day 90 infected group. Significantly more virus was also found in the hearts of the fetuses from the day 90 infected group at 7 dpi relative to the day 60 infected group, and in the kidneys of the fetuses from the day 60 infected group at 14 dpi relative to the day 90 infected group. The viral loads were significantly higher in the livers of the day 90 infected group fetuses than in the day 60 infected group at 7 dpi, but much lower at 21 dpi. The viral load in the fetal lungs did not differ in between groups at any time point. The statistical significance of inter-group differences were determined by two-way ANOVA analysis performed using GraphPad Prism 5.
The ability of PRRSV to cross the placenta and infect fetuses varies with strain. Successful transplacental infection depends on the ability of the virus to cross the placenta and replicate within the fetus, evading both maternal and fetal immune responses. Our results show that HP-PRRSV transplacentally infected fetuses in both the day 60 and 90 infected groups. Evaluation of fetal infection rates and viral loads in fetal organs revealed that HP-PRRSV is equally capable of crossing the placenta at day 60 and 90 of gestation.
Fetal infection rates at each time point were not significantly different and the viral loads were similar between the day 60 and 90 infected groups. These results support the hypothesis that fetuses are similarly susceptible to infection with HP-PRRSV at day 60 and 90 of gestation. Although in this study we did not simultaneously evaluate transplacental infection with classical PRRSV, previous studies have shown that the number of fetuses infected with classical PRRSV during mid-gestation is lower than the number infected during late gestation [14, 17, 18]; this is different from the result we obtained with HP-PRRSV.
In this study, much higher levels of virus were detected at 7 dpi in the placentas of sows infected at day 90 of gestation than in those from sows infected at day 60 of gestation; this is likely due to the lower expression of the Sn on placental macrophages at day 60 of gestation . However, HP-PRRSV infection up-regulated the expression of Sn mRNA; Sn plays a vital role in receptor-mediated endocytosis of PRRSV. Low Sn expression may explain why the HP-PRRSV load was high in the day 90 placenta while the proportion of fetuses infected was similar to that seen in sows exposed on day 60. Of course, unknown interactions between HP-PRRSV and the host immune response may also explain these findings.
In the field, HP-PRRSV infection is complicated by concomitant infection by other pathogens, which can result in severe morbidity and mortality. In the present study, a lower abortion rate (10%) was observed in the day 90 infected sows. The reason for this lower rate may be their reduced opportunity for exposure to other pathogens under laboratory conditions, which would have improved the pregnant sows’ ability to fight the HP-PRRSV infection. In this single-pathogen model, we have provided experimental evidence that HP-PRRSV is equally capable of crossing the placenta and causing fetal infection in sows at day 60 and 90 of gestation. The severity of the disturbance to reproductive hormone concentrations caused by HP-PRRSV during late gestation may explain why only sows in late gestation aborted during this study .
TW and XW conducted the research and interpreted the results. TW, XW, X-AL, LN, and MZ participated in data collection and helped to draft the manuscript. XZ, SL, YS, JAH, and E-MZ contributed to the analysis of the data and helped to draft the manuscript. YX designed the experiment and conducted the analyses, participated in data collection, and helped to draft the manuscript. All the authors have read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors are grateful for grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (30901063/C1802), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (201003646) and Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation (ZR2014CM024) to YX.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Johnson CR, Griggs TF, Gnanandarajah J, Murtaugh MP (2011) Novel structural protein in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus encoded by an alternative ORF5 present in all arteriviruses. J Gen Virol 92:1107–1116PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wassenaar AL, Spaan WJ, Gorbalenya AE, Snijder EJ (1997) Alternative proteolytic processing of the arterivirus replicase ORF1a polyprotein: evidence that NSP2 acts as a cofactor for the NSP4 serine protease. J Virol 71:9313–9322PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Allende R, Lewis TL, Lu Z, Rock DL, Kutish GF, Ali A, Doster AR, Osorio FA (1999) North American and European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses differ in non-structural protein coding regions. J Gen Virol 80:307–315PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Snijder EJ, Wassenaar AL, Spaan WJ, Gorbalenya AE (1995) The arterivirus Nsp2 protease An unusual cysteine protease with primary structure similarities to both papain-like and chymotrypsin-like proteases. J Biol Chem 270:16671–16676PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhou L, Yang HC (2010) Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in China. Virus Res 154:31–37PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tian KG, Yu XL, Zhao TZ, Feng YJ, Cao Z, Wang CB, Hu Y, Chen XZ, Hu DM, Tian XS, Liu D, Zhang S, Deng XY, Ding YQ, Yang L, Zhang YX, Xiao HX, Qiao MM, Wang B, Hou LL, Wang XY, Yang XY, Kang LP, Sun M, Jin P, Wang SJ, Kitamura Y, Yan JH, Gao GF (2007) Emergence of fatal PRRSV variants: unparalleled outbreaks of atypical PRRS in China and molecular dissection of the unique hallmark. PLoS One 2:e526PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tong GZ, Zhou YJ, Hao XF, Tian ZJ, An TQ, Qiu HJ (2007) Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, China. Emerg Infect Dis 13:1434–1436PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ni JQ, Yang SB, Bounlom D, Yu XL, Zhou Z, Song JL, Khamphouth V, Vatthana T, Tian KG (2012) Emergence and pathogenicity of highly pathogenic Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Vientiane, Lao People’s Democratic Republic. J Vet Diagn Invest 24:349–354PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- An TQ, Tian ZJ, Xiao Y, Li R, Peng JM, Wei TC, Zhang Y, Zhou YJ, Tong GZ (2010) Origin of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, China. Emerg Infect Dis 16:365–367PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Feng Y, Zhao T, Nguyen T, Inui K, Ma Y, Nguyen TH, Nguyen VC, Liu D, Bui QA, To LT, Wang C, Tian K, Gao GF (2008) Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus variants, Vietnam and China. Emerg Infect Dis 14:1774–1776PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lager KM, Mengeling WL, Brockmeier SL (1999) Evaluation of protective immunity in gilts inoculated with the NADC-8 isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and challenge-exposed with an antigenically distinct PRRSV isolate. Am J Vet Res 60:1022–1027PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Prieto C, Suarez P, Martin-Rillo S, Simarro I, Solana A, Castro JM (1996) Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on development of porcine fertilized ova in vitro. Theriogenology 46:687–693PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Prieto C, Suarez P, Simarro I, Garcia C, Fernandez A, Castro JM (1997) Transplacental infection following exposure of gilts to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus at the onset of gestation. Vet Microbiol 57:301–311PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kranker S, Nielsen J, Bille-Hansen V, Botner A (1998) Experimental inoculation of swine at various stages of gestation with a Danish isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Vet Microbiol 61:21–31PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nielsen J, Botner A, Bille-Hansen V, Oleksiewicz MB, Storgaard T (2002) Experimental inoculation of late term pregnant sows with a field isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome vaccine-derived virus. Vet Microbiol 84:1–13PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Scortti M, Prieto C, Martinez-Lobo FJ, Simarro I, Castro JM (2006) Effects of two commercial European modified-live vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses in pregnant gilts. Vet J 172:506–514PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Christianson WT, Choi CS, Collins JE, Molitor TW, Morrison RB, Joo HS (1993) Pathogenesis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection in mid-gestation sows and fetuses. Can J Vet Res 57:262–268PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Rowland RR (2010) The interaction between PRRSV and the late gestation pig fetus. Virus Res 154:114–122PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Van Gorp H, Van Breedam W, Delputte PL, Nauwynck HJ (2008) Sialoadhesin and CD163 join forces during entry of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. J Gen Virol 289:2943–2953View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Karniychuk UU, Nauwynck HJ (2009) Quantitative changes of sialoadhesin and CD163 positive macrophages in the implantation sites and organs of porcine embryos/fetuses during gestation. Placenta 30:497–500PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Karniychuk UU, De Spiegelaere W, Nauwynck HJ (2013) Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection is associated with an increased number of Sn-positive and CD8-positive cells in the maternal-fetal interface. Virus Res 176:285–291PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang XF, Qiu HK, Zhang MX, Cai XN, Qu YJ, Hu DF, Zhao XM, Zhou EM, Liu SD, Xiao YH (2015) Distribution of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) in different stages of gestation sows: HP-PRRSV distribution in gestation sows. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 166:88–94PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar