Mitochondrial accumulation of reactive oxygen species in bMECs. A Mit-SOX red mitochondrial superoxide indicator (5.0 µM) was used to label reactive oxygen species in mitochondria (mtROS) of bMECs infected with P. bovis or P. ciferrii; both induced mtROS accumulation, with P. bovis being more severe. Rotenone (2.5 µM), a mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I inhibitor, was used to induce production of mtROS. B Effects of various concentrations of rotenone on bMECs viability (note the gradual decrease with increasing rotenone concentrations). As a positive control, bMECs were treated with 2.5 µM rotenone. C NADPH in bMECs infected with either P. bovis or P. ciferrii. D Cell viability in infected bMECs. Data represent means ± SD of 3 independent experiments. *P < 0.05 or **P < 0.01, difference compared to the control.