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Table 6 Efficacy and/or immune responses of experimental bacterin vaccines against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae tested in pigs.

From: Perspectives for improvement of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines in pigs

Mycoplasma strain Adjuvant/carrier Route Nb of vaccinations Challenge infection Decrease of Humoral response CMI responsea Other/comments References
Lung lesions Clinical signs M. hyopneumoniae numbers Serum BALFb
PRIT-5 Micro-encapsulated (oral); Al(OH)3 (IM) Oral – IM 3 Yes Yes    IgG, IgA IgA (nose, saliva)   Highest humoral responses in oral group [103]
PRIT-5 Micro-encapsulated (oral); Al(OH)3 (IM) Oral – IM – IM/oral 3 Yes Yes    IgG, IgA IgA (nose, saliva)   Highest humoral responses in oral/combined groups
Best protection in IM/oral group
[104]
F7.2C c Lipo_AMP IM-IM 2 No     IgG, no IgA no IgA Th1 – no Th17 E: 3/3 – L: 3/3 d [105]
Lipo_TLR IM-IM no Th1 – no Th17 E: 3/3 – L: 3/3
Lipo_DDA:TDB ID-IM Th1 – no Th17 E: 2/3 – L: 1/3
SWE_TLR IM-IM Th1 – no Th17 E: 3/3 – L: 1/3
PLGA_TLR IM-IM No IgG/IgA no IgA no Th1 – Th17 E: 0/3 – L: 0/3
F7.2C Lipo_DDA:TDB IM-IM 2 Yes Yes Yes Yes IgG, IgA IgA Th1, Th17, CD8 +  Also reduction of microscopic lung lesions
IgA response only after challenge
Highest efficacy in SWE_TLR group
[106]
SWE_TLR Th1, Th17, CD8 + 
PLGA_TLR Th1, no Th17, CD8 + 
  1. IM, Intramuscularly; ID, intradermally.
  2. aCMI responses were tested by stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).
  3. bBALF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.
  4. cThe bacterin was formulated with 1) cationic liposomes + STING ligand c-di-AMP (Lipo_AMP), 2) cationic liposomes with TLR ligands targeting TLR1/2, TLR7/8 and TLR9 (Lipo_TLR), 3) cationic liposome formulation with the MINCLE agonist trehalose 6,6-dibehenate DDA:TDB liposomes (Lipo_DDA:TDB), 4) squalene-in-water emulsion with the same TLR ligands (SWE_TLR), 5) microparticle formulation with the same TLR ligands (PLGA_TLR).
  5. dNumber of induced blood transcriptional modules (BTM) by the vaccine group. In total, three early (E) (day 0 to 1) and three late (L) (day 1 to 7) different BTM) were measured: early inflammatory, early IFN type I, early myeloid cell/DC, late cell cycle, late T/NK-cell, late Ig.