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Table 1 Summary of the experimental conditions of S. suis co-infection with viral pathogens using in vitro models

From: Review of the speculative role of co-infections in Streptococcus suis-associated diseases in pigs

S. suis co-infection pathogen Type of cells Virus strain S. suis serotype 2 strain Virus/bacterial infection dose Incubation time (hours) Goal of the study Main observed effects of co-infection Refs.
      Virus S. suis    
PRRSV Swine bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDC) and monocytes Genotype 2 ST 1 0.1 MOI/1 MOI 2 0.5 to 5; 12 for gene expression Phagocytosis/ intracellular survival; gene expression (microarray) Bacterial phagocytosis (BMDC); gene expression coding for pro-inflammatory mediators [56]
  Porcine alveolar macrophages Genotype 2 ST 1 0.1 MOI/10 MOI   1 to 8 Phagocytosis/intracellular survival; inflammatory-related gene expression (qRT-PCR) Bacterial phagocytosis; intracellular survival and gene expression for pro-inflammatory mediators [20]
SIV Neonatal tracheal porcine cell line (NTPr) H1N1 ST 1 1 MOI/10 MOI 12 2 and 4 Adhesion and invasion; inflammatory-related gene expression (qRT-PCR) Bacterial adhesion and invasion; gene expression for pro-inflammatory mediators [79]
  NTPr H1N1 ST 1 1 MOI/10 MOI 12 12 Gene expression (microarray) Gene expression for pro-inflammatory mediators [85]
  Porcine precision-cut lung slice H1N1 and H3N2 ST 1 105 TCID50/107 CFU 1 24 to 72 Adhesion, invasion, and colonization Bacterial adherence/colonization/invasion [81]
  Porcine bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) under air–liquid interface H3N2 ST 1 5 × 104 TCID50/2.5 × 107 CFU 24 24 and 48 Adhesion, invasion, and colonization Bacterial adherence/colonization/invasion [83]
PCV-2 Immortalized swine tracheal epithelial cells (STEC) in transwell chambers PCV-2 Chinese strain ST 7 1 MOI/10 MOI 24 and 48 2 Adhesion, invasion and bacterial translocation Permeability and bacterial translocation through tracheal epithelium [99]
  STEC PCV-2 Chinese strain ST 7 1 MOI/30 MOI 24 and 48 1 to 4 Intracellular survival Bacterial intracellular survival;
gene expression for pro-inflammatory mediators
[100]
  Porcine monocytic 3D4/21 cell line PCV-2 Chinese strain ST 7 1 MOI/10 MOI 24 and 48 1 and 8 Inflammatory-related gene expression (qRT-PCR) Gene expression for pro-inflammatory mediators; MHC-II expression [21]
  1. PRSSV: Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus; SIV: Swine Influenza Virus; PCV-2: Porcine Circovirus type 2; TCID50: medium tissue culture infectious dose; CFU: colony-forming units; ST: sequence type.
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