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Table 2 Population primary and secondary parameters of TYL estimated with a two-compartment model by fitting IV and oral PK data simultaneously

From: Evaluating a tylosin dosage regimen for treatment of Staphylococcus delphini infection in mink (Neovison vison): a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic approach

  Parameter Units IV and oral
TV SE
Primary parameters Ka 1/h 0.23 0.023
V1 L/kg 2.24 1.076
V2 L/kg 1.33 0.523
CL L/h/kg 3.41 0.756
Q L/h/kg 1.97 1.453
F   0.41 0.150
MultiSD Scalar 0.15 0.114
SD IV µg/mL 0.020 0.007
SD Oral µg/mL 0.006 0.006
BSV V1 (CV%) 21.21 0.079
BSV CL (CV%) 10.00 0.161
η shrinkage V1 0.12  
η shrinkage CL 0.20  
Secondary parameters AUCIV µg h/mL 3.05 0.565
AUCOral µg h/mL 1.18 0.195
Ka HL h 3.00 0.319
Tmax h 1.75 0.138
Cmax µg/mL 0.43 0.072
  1. Ka is the absorption rate constant, V1 and V2 are volumes of distribution in central and peripheral compartments, respectively, CL is body clearance, Q is inter-compartment clearance, MultiSD is multiplicative error term and it should be interpreted as a coefficient of variation, (here of 15%), SD is the additive component of the error term, BSV is between subject variability expressed as CV, Shrinkage refers to the quality of the estimated BSV. For the present study, an η-shrinkage lower than 0.4 has been considered as acceptable. AUCIV and AUCOral are area under the concentration–time curve after IV and oral dosing, respectively and Ka-HL is half-life of absorption. TV is the population typical value. The precision of parameters (SE) was computed by the bootstrap tool in Phoenix®.