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Table 1 Major 3D skin models in humans and mice

From: 3D skin models in domestic animals

Type of models Species Specificities References
Skin explants cultivated ex vivo (from biopsies) Mouse Skin explants cultured on chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) [22]
Reconstructed human epidermis: on an acellular de-epidermized dermis (aDED) support Human Primary keratinocytes cultured onto an aDED to reconstruct an epidermis. The keratinocytes being differentiated through ALI [81, 83]
Reconstructed mouse epidermis: on an acellular de-epidermized dermis (aDED) support Mouse [84]
Reconstructed human epidermis: on plastic filter support Human Keratinocytes cultured at ALI on an inert surface (e.g. polycarbonate insert filter) [91, 92]
Reconstructed mouse epidermis: on plastic filter support Mouse [94]
Reconstructed human epidermis: on a dermal substitute made of biomaterials Human Seeding of keratinocytes on a dermal substitute made of biomaterials (collagen, hyaluronic acid, alginate…). A multilayered epidermis is obtained following the differentiation of keratinocytes at ALI [89, 95]
Full thickness skin: on dermal substitute made of biomaterials and populated with fibroblasts Human Seeding of keratinocytes on a living dermal substitute (collagen mixed with fibroblasts). A multilayered skin equivalent is obtained following the differentiation of keratinocytes at the ALI [99,100,101]
Mouse Mouse skin epidermis model. Mouse keratinocytes cultured at ALI on a living dermal substitute (type-I collagen with murine dermal fibroblasts) [102]
Full thickness skin:
DED populated with fibroblasts
Human Keratinocytes seeded on a DED populated with fibroblasts and cultured at ALI [97]
Full thickness skin: combining a DED populated with fibroblasts Human Keratinocytes seeded on a DED populated with fibroblasts and cultured at ALI [98]
Complex Full thickness skin: pigmented models Human Skin equivalent additionated with melanocytes [121]
Complex Full thickness skin: skins diseases related models Human Psoriasis or melanoma models [123, 127]
Immunocompetent 3D skin equivalent Human 3D skin model comprising of: dendritic cells (incl. Langerhans cells) or T-cells [120, 123,124,125]
Full thickness skin: reconstituted from immortalized cells Human 3D skin culture techniques using immortalized keratinocytes and fibroblasts to produce a multilayered human skin equivalent [109, 110]
Full thickness skin: reconstituted from iPSCs-derived cells Human Multilayered epidermal structure reconstituted from human keratinocytes and fibroblasts cells derived from iPSCs [113]
Full thickness hair-bearing skin: organoid system Human Multilayered epidermal structure exhibiting hairs reconstituted thanks to an organoid system [117]
3D Skin obtained by bioprinting Human Automated process used to overlay sheets of cells to obtain a complex skin architecture [129]
Skin-on-chip systems Human Technology combining reconstructed skin tissues with microsystems [132]