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Table 5 Details of immunological diagnosis in elephants.

From: Diagnosis of tuberculosis in wildlife: a systematic review

Assay test Species N/E nSe + nSp Antigens Se (%) Sp (%) References
Skin testb Asian elephant N 6 + 31 bPPD alone or with aPPD 16.7 74.2 [65]
Elephant TB Stat-Pak African/Asian elephant N 26 + 147 ESAT-6, CFP-10, MPB83 100 95.2 [10]
African/Asian elephant N 14 ESAT-6, CFP-10, MPB83 100 NE [122]
MAPIA African/Asian elephant N 26 + 147 M. bovis antigensc 100 100 [13]
DPP VetTB assay African/Asian elephant N 26 + 147 ESAT-6, CFP-10, MPB83 100 100 [10]
African/Asian elephant N 14 ESAT-6, CFP-10, MPB83 100 NE [122]
ELISA African/Asian elephant N 7 + 40 CF 100 95 [98]
bPPD 85.7 97.5
MPB70 28.6 97.5
ERD 71.4 85
RA 57.1 90
Asian elephant N 8 + 41 RA, CF, bPPD MPB70, ERD, aPPD 100a 87.8a [65]
3 + 25 CF, LAM, aPPD 33.3a 100a
8 + 55 N-lauryl-sarcosyl extract of M. bovis, bPPD, aPPD, and M. intracellulare PPD 87.5a 83.6a
BTB Asian elephant N 6 + 31 bPPD, aPPD 83.3 51.6 [65]
  1. N/E: natural or experimental infection; nSe: number of TB positive animals used for evaluation of Se; nSp: number of TB negative animals used for evaluation of Sp; Se: sensitivity; Sp: specificity; ELISA: enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; Elephant TB Stat-Pak and DPP VetTB assay: lateral flow rapid tests (Chembio Diagnostic Systems, Inc., USA); MAPIA: multiantigenimmunoprint assay; CF: M. bovis AN5 culture filtrate; ERD: lipoarabinomannan antigen Erdman strain of M. tuberculosis; RA: lipoarabinomannan antigen H37 Ra strain of M. tuberculosis; LAM: lipoarabinomannans; BTB: blood tuberculosis test.
  2. a Se and Sp are determined excluding the weak responses.
  3. b Single intradermal tuberculin test, caudal fold test as well as single comparative intradermal tuberculin skin test depending on the herd.
  4. c ESAT-6, CFP-10, MPB59, MPB64, MPB70, MPB83, the16-kDa protein, the 38-kDa protein, CFP-10/ESAT-6 and the 16 kDa protein/MPB83, bovine PPD and M. bovis culture filtrate.
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