Skip to main content

Table 1 Details of immunological diagnosis in Cervidae.

From: Diagnosis of tuberculosis in wildlife: a systematic review

Assay test Species N/E nSe + nSp Antigens Se (%) Sp (%) References
Skin test (SCITT) Red deer N + E 60 + 1157 bPPD, aPPD 91.4 98.7 [144]
Red deer N 218 bPPD, aPPD NE 46.9 [126]
Elk N 7 + 3 bPPD, aPPD 100 100 [145]
Reindeer E 13 + 4 bPPD, aPPD 92 25 [146]
White tailed deer N + E 60 + 56 bPPD, aPPD 97 81 [61]
Fallow deer N 21 bPPD, aPPD 80.1 NE [21]
IGRA White tailed deer E 91 + 44 bPPD, aPPD 74 98 [83]
Elk N 51 bPPD, aPPD NE 90a, 78b [79]
   ESAT-6/CFP-10 NE 100c
96d
Reindeer N 106 bPPD, aPPD NE 91a 83b  
   ESAT-6/CFP-10 NE 94c, 87.5d
White tailed deer N 95 bPPD NE 98a, 92b  
   ESAT-6/CFP-10 NE 97c, 95d
Red deer E 15 bPPD 92.8e, 100f, 75g 100 [23]
     P22 92.8e, 100f, 87.5g 100  
     ESAT-6/CFP-10 92.3e, 100f, 75g 100  
     Rv3615c 40e, 26.6f, 37.5g 100  
     Rv3020c 66.6e, 100f, 87.5g 100  
LST Elk N 66 + 324 bPPD 70 74 [147]
Elk N 33 + 450 bPPD 83 64 [104]
Red deer N 39 + 16 bPPD 95 44 [68]
    MPB70 72 50
Red deer-elk hybrid E 10 + 15 bPPD 65.7 92.5 [84]
qRT-PCR of cytokines expression Red deer-elk hybrid E 10 + 15 bPPD 78.6 97.5 [84]
ELISA Red deer N 104 + 56 bPPD
MPB70
88
80
52
79
[68]
Red deer N 94 + 217 bPPD, MPB70, aPPD 45.7 100 [126]
Red deer E 15 + 15 Ethanol Extract of M. bovis 86.7 93.3 [102]
Red deer N 221 + 204 bPPD
P22
70.1
70.1
91.6
99
[24]
Elk N 108 + 48 MPB83 49.1 97.9 [138]
Fallowdeer N 73 + 157 bPPD 51 96 [120]
White tailed deer N 12 + 329 LAM enriched antigen 66.7h, 58.3i 95.1h
97.3i
[113]
Reindeer E 11 + 4 LAM 100 50 [55]
BTB Red deer N 87 + 200 bPPD, aPPD 90.8 98 [126]
FPA Red deer and elk N 16 MPB70 81 NE [91]
Elk N 33 + 450 MPB70 40 81 [104]
Red deer-elk hybrid E 10 MPB70 33.33 NE [75]
RT White tailed deer N/E 28 + 435 ESAT-6, CFP-10, MPB83 75 98.9 [109]
Cervid TB STAT-PAK Elk N 31 + 842 ESAT-6, CFP-10, MPB83 87.1 98.3 [148]
Elk N 33 + 450 ESAT-6, CFP-10, MPB83 62 87 [104]
Elk
Fallow deer
N 34 + 141
32 + 107
ESAT-6, CFP-10, MPB83 82
91
93
91
[107]
Fallow deer N 21 ESAT-6, CFP-10, MPB83 80.1 NE [21]
Red deer-elk hybrid E 10 ESAT-6, CFP-10, MPB83 72.5 NE [75]
White tailed deer N 22 + 724 ESAT-6, CFP-10, MPB83 54.5 98.1 [113]
Red deer N/E 52 + 105 ESAT-6, CFP-10, MPB83 86.5 83.8 [119]
Mixed Deer sp. N 7 + 425 ESAT-6, CFP-10, MPB83 85.7j 94.8j [119]
DPP
Vet TB
Elk
Fallow deer
N 34 + 141
32 + 107
ESAT-6, CFP-10, MPB83 79
91
98
99
[107]
Fallow deer N 73 + 157 ESAT-6, CFP-10, MPB83 71 88 [120]
Red deer N/E 52 + 105 ESAT-6, CFP-10, MPB83 84.6 91.4 [119]
White tailed deer N/E 63 + 903 ESAT-6, CFP-10, MPB83 65.1 97.8 [121]
MAPIA Elk
Fallow deer
N 34
32
M. bovis antigensk 82
97
NE
NE
[107]
Red deer-elk hybrid E 10 M. bovis antigensk 76.7 NE [75]
White tailed deer N 22 + 727 M. bovis antigensk 68.2 97.1 [113]
Reindeer E 11 + 23 M. bovis antigensk 100 85 [55]
IB White tailed deer N 20 + 671
13 + 333
MPB83
Whole cell sonicate
55
46.2
99.3
92.5
[113]
Reindeer E 11 + 4 Whole cell sonicate 90.9 50 [55]
  1. N/E: natural or experimental infection; nSe: number of TB positive animals used for evaluation of Se; nSp: number of TB negative animals used for evaluation of Sp; Se: sensitivity; Sp: specificity; SCITT: single comparative intradermal tuberculin skin test; LST: lymphocyte stimulation test; qRT-PCR: quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay; IGRA: interferon gamma release assay; ELISA: enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; BTB: blood tuberculosis test; FPA: fluorescent polarization assay; MAPIA: multiantigenimmunoprint assay; Cervid TB STAT-PAK and DPP Vet TB: lateral flow tests (Chembio Diagnostic Systems, Inc., USA); RT: lateral flow rapid test (name not mentioned-Chembio Diagnostic Systems, Inc., USA); NE: not estimated; IB: immunoblotting
  2. a Cut off: OD of bPPD–aPPD and bPPD–PBS > 0.1.
  3. b Cut off: OD of bPPD–aPPD and bPPD–PBS > 0.05.
  4. c Cut off: OD of ESAT-6:CFP-10–PBS > 0.1.
  5. d Cut off: OD of ESAT-6:CFP10–PBS > 0.05.
  6. e Se of experimentally infected animals at 15 days post-infection (dpi).
  7. f Se of experimentally infected animals at 30 dpi.
  8. g Se of experimentally infected animals at 60 dpi (cut off for e, f, g: for bPPD and P22, OD of bPPD–aPPD and bPPD–PBS > 0.05, for specific antigens like ESAT-6:CFP10, Rv3615c and Rv3020c, OD of specific antigen–PBS > 0.05).
  9. h Cut off: OD ≥ 0.25.
  10. i Cut off: OD ≥ 0.3.
  11. j Se and Sp were evaluated based on mixed species of deer consisting of fallow deer, roe deer and red deer.
  12. k ESAT-6, CFP-10, MPB59, MPB64, MPB70, MPB83, 16-kDa protein, 38-kDa protein, CFP-10/ESAT-6 and 16 kDa protein/MPB83, and two native antigens, bovine PPD and M. bovis culture filtrate.
\