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Table 2 Occurrence and summary of the resistance profile of K. pneumoniae in environmental sources in Germany.

From: The Animal-foods-environment interface of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Germany: an observational study on pathogenicity, resistance development and the current situation

Source No. of strains Resistance pattern Genes detected Locality of Sample Year of sampling Authors and year of
K. pneumonia in environmental sources (10 studies)
Wastewater from poultry slaughterhouses 51 ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and Six colistin resistance Strains harbored blaSHV-1, 2, 25, 27, and 28, combinations SHV-2-TEM-1b and SHV-27-TEM-52b and CTX-M-1 were detected. Three strains with mcr-1 were isolated ND December 2016–September 2018 Savin et al. 2020 [66]
Water/sediment samples 9 MDR-ESBL producing strains Strains harbored blaSHV–28, blaCTX–M–15, tet(D), catB3, aac(3)-IId, strA, strB, fosA, ere(A), sul1, sul2, oqxA, oqxB, aac(6′)Ib-cr, qnrS1, dfrA5 and dfrA14 Northern Germany 2017 Falgenhauer et al. 2019 [65]
Raw sewage one ESBL producing strain 182 (WGS of virulent phage PMBT1). Resistant patterns not determined ND Kiel ND Koberg et al. 2017 [64]
Washing machines, dishwashers ND   β-Lactamase genes AmpC- and OXA-type were detected North-Rhine-Westphalia ND Rehberg et al. 2017 [63]
Wastewater treatment plants ND Colistin resistance, tetracycline resistance and erythromycin resistance Strains harbored mcr-1, tetM, ermB gene, ß-lactam (blaCTX-M-32, blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaCMY-2) ND ND Hembach et al. 2017 [61]
Dust from Pig farm 2 ESBL, resistant to ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefuroxime, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and cefotaxime; and intermediate to piperacillin/tazobactam and ceftazidime and susceptible to carbapenems Strain harbored blaCTX-M-1-like and blaSHVnon-ESBL genes Lower Saxony, North-Rhine-Westphalia 2013 Garcia-Cobos et al. 2015 [60]
Moth fly Clogmia albipunctata 3 Resistance to ampicillin and piperacillin, sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanate, gentamicin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, amikacin, tobramycin, cotrimoxazole, aztreonam, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, imipenem, meropenem, piperacillin, tazobactam ND ND 2011–2012 Faulde and Spiesberge, 2013 [59]
Natural surface waters 62 Resistant patterns not determined ND Schleswig–Holstein 1997–1998 Podschun et al. 2001 [58]
Water ND Resistant pattern not determined ND Rhine-Neckar region 1982–1983, 1986 Mersch-Sundermann and Wundt 1987 [57]
Raw wastewater ND 92.8% were resist to gentamicin and trimethoprim ND ND ND Stelzer et al. 1985 [56]
  1. ND: not determined.