Effect of P. multocida infection on ciliated cells. Well-differentiated bovine airway epithelial cells were infected by P. multocida at the inoculation conditions indicated (102 or 105 CFU, 1 or 4 h). At 4, 12, 24hpi, samples were immune-stained (anti-β-tubulin, DAPI) to visualize cilia (red) and nuclei (blue). A Pictures obtained by microscopy; B Quantitation of the relative red fluorescence. Results are presented as mean ± SEM compared to mock-infected samples; Scale bars-50 µm.