HcESPs suppressed cell proliferation and induced T cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. A Flow cytometry analysis of T cell proliferation in response to HcESP treatment. T cell proliferation was determined by staining with 7-AAD and EdU-APC. The proliferation rate was calculated from the percentage of T cells in S phase. B Cell cycle analysis of T cells was performed by flow cytometry using PI/RNase staining reagent. HcESPs caused cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. C Relative levels of CCND1, CCNE1, CCNB1, CDK4, CDK6, CDK2, CDK1, p21, p27, FoxO1 and Akt1 transcription in goat T cells treated with HcESPs. The results presented here are representative of three independent experiments. The data are presented as the mean ± SD; *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001, ****P < 0.0001 vs the control group.