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Table 1 Characteristics of each of the four adjuvants employed

From: Influenza NG-34 T cell conserved epitope adjuvanted with CAF01 as a possible influenza vaccine candidate

Adjuvant nameAdjuvant type/chemical constituentsImmunological profileMechanism of action (delivery system/immunopotentiation)Stage of developmentReferences
Alhydrogel® referred as AHAluminum salts (Mineral salts)/Aluminum hydroxideTH2, humoralDepot effect, delayed clearance/Activate Nalp3 inflammasomeBoth human and veterinary licensed vaccines[47,48,49,50,51]
AddaVax™ (Invivogen); similar to MF59®Oil-in-water emulsion/Squalene and polysorbate mixtureTH2, humoralEnhance antigen presentation/Induce APC maturationLicensed European seasonal influenza vaccines[52,53,54,55,56,57]
CAF01Particulate: Cationic liposome/Dimethyldioctadecylamonium (DDA) and α,α′-trehalose-6,6′-dibehenate (TDB)TH1, TH17, humoral Protect antigen from destruction/Induce APC maturationPhase 1[8, 19, 34, 58, 59]
Diluvac Forte™Oil-in-water emulsion/α-tocopherolHumoralEnhance antigen presentation/Induce APC maturationApproved in Animal Health[17, 18, 60, 61]
  1. TH = T helper; Nalp3 = NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3; APC = antigen presenting cells.