L. johnsoniiL531 ameliorates the small intestinal inflammation and tissue damage caused bySalmonella. A Representative photomicrographs of hematoxylin and eosin–stained jejunal and ileal sections. Scale bars, 100 µm. Villus length (B) and the ratio of villus length to crypt depth (C) at the jejunum of animals of the indicated groups are shown. Arrowheads indicate inflammatory infiltration in the ileum of S. Infantis–infected piglets. D Jejunal and ileal histologic scores (non-parametric Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney U-test). E Level of lipocalin 2 in mucosal tissues of the jejunum and ileum as determined by ELISA. Data are presented as the mean ± SEM for each tissue. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001 (Tukey’s test).