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Figure 3 | Veterinary Research

Figure 3

From: In vitro effects of lonidamine and 6-aminonicotinamide against Echinococcus granulosussensu stricto and Echinococcus multilocularis

Figure 3

In vitro efficacy of the drugs against adultE. granulosus s. s.A The release of alkaline phosphatase from adult E. granulosus s. s. (EgAP) after treatment with LND, 6-AN, and their combination. *p < 0.05 vs. DMSO control. B Morphologies of adult E. granulosus s. s. after treatment with LND, 6-AN, and their combination. a, b Tapeworms incubated in culture medium containing 0.2% DMSO. Note the concave suckers (Su) on the scolex (S), the intact first proglottid (P1), second proglottid (P2) and terminal proglottid (P3) with genital pore (Gp) as well as the complete hooks (H); cl Tapeworms treated with 200 μM PZQ (c, d), 200 μM 6-AN (e, f), 200 μM LND (g, h), 100 μM LND + 100 μM 6-AN (i, j) and 200 μM LND + 200 μM 6-AN (k, l), respectively; C Ultrastructures of adult E. granulosus s. s. after 4 h of treatment with LND, 6-AN, and their combination. a Tapeworms incubated in culture medium containing 0.2% DMSO. Note the normal and distinct morphology (m, microtriches; mi, mitochondria; mic, microfilament; cm, circular muscle bundle; lm, longitudinal muscle bundle; bm, basement membrane; p, perikarya) and the large number and the length of microtriches; bh Tapeworms treated with 200 μM PZQ (b), 200 μM 6-AN (c), 200 μM LND (d), 100 μM LND + 100 μM 6-AN (e, f) and 200 μM LND + 200 μM 6-AN (g, g), respectively. ld: lipid droplet.

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