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Table 6 Comparison of frequency, location and aetiology of causes of death or stranding in harbour porpoises from the North Sea of five autopsy overviews

From: Clinical, pathological, and laboratory diagnoses of diseases of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), live stranded on the Dutch and adjacent coasts from 2003 to 2016

Publication Location of lesion, or reason responsible for stranding or death
Lungs Starvation Brain Liver Integument Kidney Sepsis Unknown Other
British waters 1979–1991a [13] (n = 31) 21 neonates, 30 juveniles, 49 adults
 Total prevalence 45 10     3 6 10 32
  Parasites 23         
  Bacteria 13       6   
  Fungi 3         
  Viruses          
  Non inflammatory 6      3    
German North and Baltic seas 1991–1996a, b [16] (n = 66) 5 foetuses, 35 < 0.5 years, 0.5 < 41 < 4 years, 4 years < 20
 Total prevalence 46 7 ? ? ? ? ? 24 ?
  Parasites plus bacteria Mainly         
  Fungi 2         
Belgium and Northern France 1990–2000a [14] 11 neonates, 57 juveniles, 32 adults
 Total prevalence 56 9 4     2 ?  
  Parasites 26         
  Bacteria    2     2   
  Parasites plus bacteria 30         
  Unknown    2       
England and Wales 1990–1995a [15] (n = 104) ages not specified
 Total prevalence 28 20 2 1    7 23 19
  Parasites 8         
  Bacteria 6       6   
  Parasites plus bacteria 8         
  Fungi 2         
  Viruses        1   
  Non inflammatory          
  Unknown 5   2 1      
Dutch and adjacent coasts 2003–2016 (n = 61) 7 neonates, 70 juveniles, 23 adults
 Total prevalence 58 16 11 11 13 7 5 7 20
  Parasites 15         
  Bacteria 10    2 7   5   
  Parasites plus bacteria 11         
  Fungi 7   3       
  Fungi plus parasites 5         
  Fungi plus bacteria 11   2       
  Viruses    2       
  Viruses plus bacteria      2     
  Non inflammatory 2    3 5 (trauma) 7    
  Unknown 8   5 7      
  1. Between brackets are number of animals autopsied. All other numbers are percentages. Italics numbers are total percentages.
  2. Prevalence for causes of stranding for the publication referring to the Dutch coast, prevalence for cause of death for the four other publications.
  3. ?, could not be deduced from publication.
  4. aBycaught animals, decomposed animals and animals dead due to suspected by-catch related trauma excluded.
  5. bResults reported for mixed bycaught and stranded animals, only results reported for which it was clear they related to stranded animals.