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Figure 2 | Veterinary Research

Figure 2

From: Xanthohumol inhibits PRRSV proliferation and alleviates oxidative stress induced by PRRSV via the Nrf2–HMOX1 axis

Figure 2

Identification of anti-PRRSV activity of Xn in Marc-145 cells. Marc-145 cells were pre-treated with the indicated concentrations of Xn (AC) or 10 µM Xn (D) for 1 h and then infected with PRRSV (0.01 MOI) for 1 h at 37 °C. Cells were washed with PBS and then incubated in fresh medium containing Xn for 48 h (C) or the indicated times (A, B). DMSO served as the treatment control. A Culture supernatants were collected at the indicated time points for viral titration. The results are expressed as a 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50). Titres from three independent experiments are shown as the means ± SEMs (error bars). B Relative PRRSV ORF7 mRNA levels determined by qRT-PCR and expressed relative to ORF7 mRNA levels in mock cells. GAPDH was the internal loading control. C At 48 hpi, light microscopy and IFA images of Marc-145 PRRSV-infected and Xn-treated cells. Viral N-protein is red, and nuclei are blue. D At 48 hpi, Western blot of N-protein in cells infected with different PRRSV genotypes and treated with 10 µM Xn or DMSO. All assays were performed in triplicate, with three technical repeats for each sample. Bars represent means ± SEMs from three independent experiments. ***P < 0.001; **P < 0.01; *P < 0.05

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