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Table 2 Cytopathic effect (CPE) observed in E-11 cells inoculated with the mutated virus r1_445, the 160 strain (wt and r) and parental strains from genotypes RGNNV and SJNNV at different temperatures

From: Amino acidic substitutions in the polymerase N-terminal region of a reassortant betanodavirus strain causing poor adaptation to temperature increase

Days pi Temperature (°C)
15 20 25 30
RGNNV SJNNV wt160 r160 r1_445 RGNNV SJNNV wt160 r160 r1_445 RGNNV SJNNV wt160 r160 r1_445 RGNNV SJNNV wt160 r160 r1_445
1 S S S S S
2 S S S S S +
3 S, D S S S S + + + + + ++ + + ++ +
4 S, D S S S S ++ + + + + +++ + ++ +++ +
5 S, D S S S S + + + +++ +++ ++ ++ ++ ++++ + ++++ ++++ +++
6 S, D S, D S, D S S ++ ++ + + + ++++ ++++ +++ +++ ++ NA + NA NA +++
7 S, D S, D S, D S S ++ ++ ++ ++ + NA NA ++++ ++++ +++ NA + NA NA ++++
8 S, D S, D S, D S, D S +++ +++ +++ +++ + NA NA NA NA +++ NA ++ NA NA NA
9 S, D S, D S, D S, D S ++++ ++++ +++ ++++ ++ NA NA NA NA ++++ NA +++ NA NA NA
10 S, D S, D S, D S, D S NA NA ++++ NA +++ NA NA NA NA NA NA +++ NA NA NA
  1. S: Cell shrinkage, D: detached cells, − absence of cytopathic effect (CPE), + initial vacuolation, ++ extensive vacuolation, +++ extensive vacuolation and initial disruption of the monolayer, ++++ complete destruction of the monolayer, NA: not applicable.