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Table 1 Farmer knowledge of FMD clinical signs and preventive measures, including vaccination practices, in the study area located within the Nakuru County, Kenya

From: Knowledge and risk factors for foot-and-mouth disease among small-scale dairy farmers in an endemic setting

Knowledge on clinical signs of FMD Preventive measures for FMDa FMD vaccination practices
Clinical sign Response/totala (%) Preventive measure Response/total (%) Vaccination practice Response/total (%)
Hypersalivation 160/207 (77.3) Vaccination 94/207 (45.4) Vaccinated ≤ 4 months ago 35/220 (15.9)b
Hoof lesions 111/207 (53.6) Keep cattle within farm compound 76/207 (36.7) Vaccinated 5–6 months ago 10/220 (4.5)b
Mouth lesions 109/207 (52.7) Avoid other cattle from entering farm compound 15/207 (7.2) Vaccinated 6–12 months ago 45/220 (20.5)b
Lameness 81/207 (39.1) Keep cattle away from farm compound boundaries 14/207 (6.8) Vaccinated > 1 year ago 51/220 (31.7)b
Lack of appetite 64/207 (30.9) Do not bring in new cattle 9/207 (4.3) No vaccination date reported 2/220 (0.9)b
Depression 33/207 (15.9) Avoid use of communal dips 5/207 (2.4) Vaccinated all cattle 131/143 (91.6)c
Drop in milk production 15/207 (7.2) Do not share equipment with surrounding farms 5/207 (2.4) Young calves not vaccinated 6/143 (4.2)c
Lesions on teats 8/207 (3.9) Keep visitors away from cattle 4/207 (1.9) Pregnant Cattle not vaccinated 5/143 (3.5)c
Mortality in adult cattle 1/207 (0.5) Do not do any preventive measure 58/207 (28.0) Private AHP vaccinates cattle 24/143 (16.8)c
     Government AHP vaccinates cattle 118/143 (82.5)c
     Non-AHP vaccinates cattle 1/143 (0.7)c
     Cattle vaccinated at communal point 84/143 (58.7)c
     Cattle vaccinated at farm compound 59/143 (41.3)c
  1. AHP, Animal Health Provider (veterinarian or para-veterinarian).
  2. aDenominator is all farmers that had heard of FMD.
  3. bDenominator is all farms that were surveyed.
  4. cDenominator is all farms that had ever vaccinated.