Quantitative analysis of genomic RNA, antigenomic RNA, mRNA and protein in a minigenomic assay. Relative fold expression of genomic RNA (A), antigenomic RNA (B), and mRNA (C) in the minigenome system caused by M or M/NLSm were measured by qRT-PCR. Error bars represent standard deviations (mean ± SD) (*P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001 compared to the value of negative control). D Expression of GFP in the minigenome system caused by M or M/NLSm was detected by Western blotting at 36 and 48 hpt. The relative levels of the M and GFP proteins were compared with the control GAPDH expression.