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Table 1 Experimental design for trials to assess alternate infection routes

From: Alternate routes of influenza A virus infection in Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)

Experiment Trial # Ducks Age of ducks (months) Mode of inoculation Housing
Cloacal drinking Cloacal inoculation 5 4 Inoculation of 2 mL virus into the cloaca with canula Each duck in a separate cage immediately following inoculation
Cloacal inoculation 5 6 Inoculation of 2 mL virus into the cloaca with canula Each duck in a separate cage immediately following inoculation
Cloacal exposure 4 5 Placed in virus laden water (6 mL virus stock + 2 L water) in specially designed inoculation box Each duck in a separate cage immediately following inoculation
Preening Preening cages 5 6 Bathed with virus laden water (3 mL virus stock + 1 L water) Each duck in a separate cage immediately following inoculation
Preening transmission (inoculation) 5 6 Bathed with virus laden water (3 mL virus stock + 1 L water) Ducks placed in an experimental room with conspecifics
Preening transmission (contacts) 5 6 Unexposed contacts Ducks placed in an experimental room with conspecifics