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Figure 1 | Veterinary Research

Figure 1

From: Porcine sapovirus Cowden strain enters LLC-PK cells via clathrin- and cholesterol-dependent endocytosis with the requirement of dynamin II

Figure 1

Chemical inhibitors against clathrin-, dynamin-, and cholesterol-mediated endocytosis reduce PSaV infection. AC Confluent monolayers of LLC-PK, Caco-2, and MA104 cells were treated with DMSO vehicle or different concentrations of chlorpromazine (CPZ), MβCD, nystatin, or dynasore prior to infection with PSaV Cowden (A), Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) Nancy (B), or human rotavirus Wa (C) strains. Soluble cholesterol was added to the medium to examine the effect of cholesterol replenishment following MβCD-mediated depletion and then cells were infected with PSaV Cowden, CVB3 Nancy, or human rotavirus Wa strains. Infected cells were counted after staining with antibodies specific for each virus, and nuclei were counted after staining with DAPI. For each virus, results are shown as the percentage of infected cells, and normalized to the result obtained with control DMSO-treated cells. Data for panels AC are presented as mean ± standard deviation of the mean from three independent experiments. Differences were evaluated using one-way ANOVA. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.001; ***P < 0.0001.

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