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Table 1 Safety testing of V-RG in current or potential primary target species administered by various routes

From: Oral vaccination of wildlife using a vaccinia–rabies-glycoprotein recombinant virus vaccine (RABORAL V-RG®): a global review

Species No. of animals Routea Dose per animalb Observation period (days) References
Red fox 2 i.d. 108.0 PFU 28 [54]
(Vulpes vulpes) 2 s.c. 108.0 PFU 28 [54]
  4 p.o. scarified 108.0 PFU 28 [54]
  4 p.o. 104.0 PFU 28 [54]
  4 p.o. 106.0 PFU 28 [54]
  4 p.o. 108.0 PFU 28 [54]
  5 p.o. in bait 108.0 PFU/bait 28 [54]
  8 p.o. in bait 109.1 TCID50/bait 90 [63]
  6 intragastric 109.1 TCID50 90 [63]
  2 i.d. scarified 107.9 TCID50 90 [63]
  4 p.o. 106 PFU 30 [64]
  4 p.o. 107 PFU 30 [64]
  4 p.o. 108 PFU 30 [64]
  4 p.o. (lyophilised) 108.0 PFU 30 [64]
  5 p.o. in bait 108.0 PFU 30 [64]
  10 p.o. in bait 108.34 TCID50/bait 182 [91]
  10 p.o. in bait 108.4 TCID50/bait 182 [91]
  8 p.o in bait 107.6 to 9.5 TCID50/bait 121 [144]
Red fox kits 13 p.o. 107.2 PFU 33–360 [55]
(V. vulpes; silver var.) 65 p.o. 108.0 to 8.4 TCID50 60–120 [81]
Gray fox 4 p.o. 106.8 TCID50 90 Unpublished datac
(Urocyon cinereoargenteus) 6 p.o. 108.1 TCID50 90 Unpublished datac
  6 p.o. 109.3 TCID50 90 Unpublished datac
Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) 8 p.o. 108.0 PFU 112 [82]
Raccoon 3 i.d. 107.0 PFU 28 [52]
(Procyon lotor) 3 i.m. 107.8 PFU 28 [52]
  1 p.o. 106.0 PFU 28 [52]
  6 p.o. 108.0 PFU 28 [52]
  8 p.o. in bait 108.0 PFU/bait 28 [52]
  6 p.o. 108.0 PFU ~180 [68]
  7 p.o. in bait 108.0 PFU/bait ~180 [68]
Raccoon kits (P. lotor) 18 p.o. 108.2 PFU 245 to 266 [59]
Coyote 4 p.o. 107.4 TCID50 49 Unpublished datad
(Canis latrans) 8 p.o. 108.3 TCID50 49 Unpublished datad
  7 p.o. in 1 bait/day for 3 days 108.5 TCID50/bait 49 Unpublished datad
  10 p.o. 108.3 TCID50 90 [68]
Skunk 8 p.o. in bait 109.0 PFU/bait 90 [88]
(Mephitis mephitis) 8 Intraduodenal 109.0 PFU 90 [88]
  4 i.m. 108.3 PFU 90 [88]
  6 i.d. 108.3 PFU 90 [88]
  6 p.o. 107.7 TCID50 116 [89]
  5 p.o. in bait 107.7 TCID50/bait 116 [89]
  5 p.o. in 3 baits 107.7 TCID50/bait 116 [89]
Raccoon dog 10 p.o. in bait 108.8 TCID50/bait 124 [91]
(Nyctereutes procyonoides) 10 p.o. in bait 109.0 TCID50/bait 124 [91]
Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) 9 p.o. in bait 108.8 TCID50/bait 160 [92]
  8 p.o. in bait 107.6 to 9.5TCID50/bait 121 [144]
  3 p.o. 107.6 to 9.5TCID50/bait 207 [144]
Small Asian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) 5 p.o. 108.0 TCID50 28 [93]
European badger (Meles meles) 6 p.o. 108.3 TCID50 45 [56]
Vampire bat 56 p.o. 108.0 TCID50 5 to 120 [108]
(Desmodus rotundus) 8 i.m. 107.4 TCID50 31 [99]
  8 i.d. scarified 107.0 TCID50 31 [99]
  8 p.o. 108.0 TCID50 31 [99]
  8 Aerosol (nebulization) ≤ 107.4 TCID50 31 [99]
  1. ai.d., intradermal; i.m., intramuscular; p.o., per os (oral); s.c., subcutaneous.
  2. bTCID50, median tissue culture infectious doses; PFU, plaque forming units.
  3. cUnpublished data; USA registration dossier, VRG 95/036B.
  4. dUnpublished data; USA registration dossier, VRG 94/069.