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Table 2 Bacterial ghosts as effective adjuvants both in vivo and in vitro

From: Bacterial ghosts as adjuvants: mechanisms and potential

In vivo studies
BG + Foreign Ag Model/route Response References
V. cholerae ghosts — C. trachomatis Ags Mice/i.m Induced local genital mucosal as well as systemic Th1 responses, adoptive transfer of T cells from immunized mice provide protection against a C. trachomatis genital challenge [72]
E. coli ghosts-SbsA/Omp26 fusion proteins Mice/i.p Omp26 specific antibody response [81]
M. haemolytica BG- beta-galactosidase Mice/i.d; i.m Antigen specific humoral and cell mediated immune response, mixed type Th1/Th2, efficient maturation of DC [10]
E. coli ghosts-hepatitis B virus core 149 antigen Mice/s.c HBcAg-149 specific antibody response [104]
Helicobacter pylori BG-Omp18 Mice/oral Anti-H. pylori and Omp18-specific antibody response, significant reduction of gastric H. pylori colonization [105]
S.Ty21a BG-HIV-1 gp140 DNA vaccine Mice/s.c HIV specific potent mucosal and systemic antibody response [18]
E. coli O157:H7 BGs-Stxs-Stx2Am-Stx1B Mice/i.g Specific IgA/IgG antibody response, stronger intimin specific IgA/IgG antibodies, anti-toxin and anti-adhesion immune protection [19]
S. Typhimurium BG-fimbrial antigens of ETEC Mice/i.m Humoral and cell mediated immune response [92]
In vitro studies
BG Cell type Response  
V. cholerae Human THP-1 Rapid uptake of BG, Induction of Th1 cytokines [106]
A. pleuropneumoniae Porcine APCs Efficient internalization and processing of BG, BG increased expression of SWC3, MIL-2, MSA3, and CD80/86 molecules, increased proliferation capacity of T cells [68]
M. haemolytica Murine DCs Activation and maturation of dendritic cells, induction of proinflammatory cytokines [10]
E. coli Human keratinocytes Efficient internalization of BG, release of the pro inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, induction of antimicrobial psoriasin [50]
E. coli Bovine DCs Efficient maturation of DC, Induction of Th1/Th2 cytokines, increased capacity of T cells to proliferate [13]
  1. i.d: intradermal, i.g: intragastrically, i.m: intramuscular, i.p: intraperitoneally, s.c: subcutaneous.