How BG induce effective humoral and cell mediated immune (CMI) responses. BG activate immune (DC, macrophages, B and T cells) and non-immune cells (epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and keratinocytes) either through TLR2 or TLR4 pathways. The cumulative effect of the stimulation of these cell types results in the enhanced activation of T and B cells, which subsequently lead to the induction of efficient humoral and CMI responses. The presence of LPS in BG improves the antigen cross presenting ability of DC to CD8+ T cells, and thus helps in the elicitation of potent cytotoxic T cell responses. Moreover, the ability of BG to induce cytokine and chemokine production in a number of lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells results in the generalized recruitment of T, B and DC to lymph nodes that maximize the chances of encounter with their cognate antigen and development of effective immune responses subsequently.