Invasion and replication efficiency of
in different bovine epithelial cell lines. Efficiencies were determined following the study design described in Figure 1. The relative numbers of cell-associated genome equivalents of C. burnetii (GE) of NMI (A) and of NMII (B) were determined by icd qPCR. Significant differences between udder cells and other epithelial cell lines were determined by Mann–Whitney U test (a: p ≤ 0.05; b: p ≤ 0.01); L—Bel-26 (lung), Pm—BCEC (maternal placenta), Pf—F3 (fetal placenta), G—FKD-R 971 (jejunum), U—PS (udder).