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Table 2 Summary of different interactions occurring during co-infections by different heterologous pathogens in different fish species

From: The impact of co-infections on fish: a review

Host species First pathogen Second pathogen Type of interaction during co-infection References
Parasitic and bacterial co-infections
Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Myxobolus cerebralis (Myxozoa) Yersinia ruckeri Synergistic [75]
Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Gyrodactylus niloticus (Helminth) Streptococcus iniae Synergistic [59]
Goldfish, Carassius auratus Dactylogyrus intermedius (Helminth) F. columnare Synergistic [60]
Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Argulus coregoni (Fish louse) F. columnare Synergistic [57]
Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (protozoa) E. ictaluri Synergistic [65]
Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus I. multifiliis S. iniae Synergistic [70]
Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus I. multifiliis A. hydrophila Synergistic [72]
Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar Piscirickettsia salmonis C. rogercresseyi Synergistic [62]
Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus E. ictaluri I. multifiliis Synergistic [64]
Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus S. iniae or S. agalactiae Trichdina sp. Synergistic [71]
Parasitic and viral co-infections
Whiting, Merlangius merlangus euxinus Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus Trichdina sp. Synergistic [76]
Bacterial and viral co-infections
Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus Vibrio salmonicida Synergistic [81]
Grouper, Epinephelus sp. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus Vibrio carchariae Synergistic [82]
Olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus Marine birnavirus S. iniae, Vibrio spp. Synergistic [83]
Olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus Marine birnavirus Vibrio harveyi or E. tarda Synergistic [84]
Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus Aquabirnavirus E. tarda or S. iniae Synergistic [85]
Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Flavobacterium psychrophilum Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus Synergistic [86]
Fungal and bacterial co-infections
Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Fusarium oxysporum A. hydrophila Synergistic [87]
Discus fish, Symphysodon Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum or F. moniliform A. hydrophila Synergistic [88]