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Table 1 Summary of different interactions occurring during co-infections by different homologous pathogens in different fish species

From: The impact of co-infections on fish: a review

Host species First pathogen Second pathogen Type of interaction during co-infection References
Bacterial co-infections
Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar Aliivibrio wodanis Moritella viscosa Antagonistic [24, 25]
Vietnamese catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Edwardsiella ictaluri Aeromonas hydrophila Synergistic [17]
Thailand striped catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus E. ictaluri Flavobacterium columnare Synergistic [18]
Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Renibacterium salmoninarum A. hydrophila Synergistic [19]
Viral co-infections
Grouper fin cells, GF-1 Snakehead retrovirus Grouper nervous necrosis virus Synergistic [27]
Channel catfish ovary and brown bullhead cells Channel catfish reovirus Ictalurid herpesvirus 1 Antagonistic [29]
Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Infectious hematopoietic necrosis Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus Antagonistic [30]
Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus Infectious hematopoietic necrosis Antagonistic [36]
Chinook Salmon Embryo Cells, CHSE-214 Salmonid Alphavirus Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus Antagonistic [41]
Japanese Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus Aquabirnavirus Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus Antagonistic [42]
Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus Infectious salmon anaemia virus Antagonistic [81]
Olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus Marine birnavirus Nervous necrosis virus,VHSV, Lymphocystis disease virus Synergistic [83]
Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus Aquabirnavirus Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus Antagonistic [85]
Parasitic co-infections
Farmed brown trout, Salmo trutta Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) Chloromyxum schurovi (Myxozoa) Antagonistic [48, 49]
Wild brown trout, Salmo trutta T. bryosalmonae Raphidascaris acus (Nematode) Synergistic [50]
Farmed lumpfish, Cyclopterus lumpus Nucleospora cyclopteri (Microsporidia) Kudoa islandica (Myxozoa) Synergistic [51]
Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar Caligus rogercresseyi (Sea louse) Neoparamoeba perurans (Protozoa) Synergistic [52]
Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Fish louse) N.perurans (Protozoa) Synergistic [53]