Vitellogenin mRNA expression. LME results. The black dots represent the fitted values, and the lines are 95% confidence intervals. Raw data were superimposed (grey dots). Gene expression was primarily affected by treatment (L-ratio = 12.27, df = 4, p = 0.01). Treatments: C (control); I (infected honeybees); CFluv (non-infected honeybees fed with 666 ppb of tau-fluvalinate); I + Fluv (infected honeybees fed with 666 ppb of tau-fluvalinate); I + Cou (infected honeybees fed with 3333 ppb of coumaphos). Treatments I, I + Fluv and I + Cou were significantly lower than control treatment (t = −2.62, t = −2.13 and t = −2.47 respectively; p = 0.01, p = 0.04 and p = 0.02 respectively). Asterisk indicates statistically significant differences with treatment (C).