Effect of the NF-κB inhibitor caffeic acid phenylester (CAPE) on induction of TAP gene expression by LPS, Pam3CSK4 and IL-17A. Stimulation of bovine tracheal epithelial cells (bTEC) with 0.1 µg/mL LPS (panel A), 1 µg/mL Pam3CSK4 (panel B), or 316 ng/mL IL-17A (panel C) induced significantly greater TAP gene expression than in non-stimulated cells (NS). Pre-treatment with CAPE for 2 h before stimulation inhibited each of these responses. Asterisks indicate significant effects of CAPE treatment compared to no CAPE, P < 0.0001, one-way ANOVA. The data are mean ± SEM of technical triplicates, and the findings were similar when the experiments were repeated using cells from different animals.