particles significantly activated immune gene expression and NF-κB in macrophages.
A Murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated for the time as indicated (abscissa) with 30 µg/mL of heat-killed particles of E. coli
1303 or of the S. uberis strains 0140J, 233, T1–18, and T2–58. TNF, IL6, CXCL2, and CCL5 mRNA concentrations were measured from duplicate assays and expressed as multiples of the concentration from unstimulated controls (*p < 0.05). B RAW 264.7 cells were transfected with the ELAM driven reporter gene construct (100 ng) and stimulated with 30 µg/mL of heat-killed particles of E. coli
1303 or of the S. uberis strains 0140J or 233 for 24 h. Renilla activity was measured from those cell lysates and expressed as multiple of the respective unstimulated control (ordinate, tabulated values below the graph, mean ± SEM, n = 2 independent experiments, each assayed in triplicate, * p < 0.05).