Xenodiagnostic follow-up of hamsters infected with outbreak isolates. Infectivity of infected hamsters was assessed by xenodiagnosis. Animals infected with JPCM5 were not infective for sand flies. Only xenodiagnosis of animals infected with outbreak isolates yielded positive results at 2, 4 and 6 months after IP inoculation or sand fly bite transmission. Bars represent the standard deviation.