Effect of pre-treatment with free
galactan on LPS-induced release of TNF-α (
), IL-12p40 (
), and IL-10 (
) by bovine macrophages. Cells were incubated with LPS alone at 2 µg/mL (LPS), galactan alone at 10 µg/mL (EPS), or galactan for 8 h before stimulation with 2 µg/mL of LPS (EPS + LPS). ELISA was used to detect levels of secreted cytokines in 2-day-old supernatants. Results from three different experiments are expressed as mean (±SD) percentage of the value obtained with LPS alone. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between LPS alone and EPS + LPS.