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Table 1 Histopathological (HE) and immunohistochemical (IHC) results from vaccinated falcons and non-vaccinated controls infected with WNV lineage 1 NY’99

From: DNA vaccines encoding the envelope protein of West Nile virus lineages 1 or 2 administered intramuscularly, via electroporation and with recombinant virus protein induce partial protection in large falcons (Falco spp.)

Grp ID Dpi Brain Heart Spleen Inject. Vacc. Others
    HE IHC HE IHC IHC IHC Qual Deg Art PALS Neu Nep Hep Ent Pan Ser Sep
A F25 20 2 0 1 0 0 1 - 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 c 0 0 0
F26 8* 2 1 0 1 0 1 - 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F28 21 2 0 1 0 0 0 - 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
F29 4* 0 0 0 0 0 1 - 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 h 0 0 0
F30 19 2 1 0 0 0 0 - 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
B F31 21 2 0 0 0 0 0 Nsp. 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
F32 19 2 0 1 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
F33 21 1 0 1 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 c 0 0 0
F34 20 1.5 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
F35 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
C F49 20 2.5 0 0 0 0 0 Nsp. 0.5 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
F50 20 3 0 0.5 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
F52 19 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 Fol. 0 0 0 0 0 1 c 0 0 0
F53 19 0 0 0 0 1 0 Fol. 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F54 21 2 1 1 1 0 0 - 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
D F56 19 1 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 c 0 0 0
F57 21 2.5 0 0 0 0 0 Fol. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F58 21 2 0 10 0 0 0 Gran. 3 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
F59 18* 2 3 1.5 0 0 0 Nsp. 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
F60 20 1.5 0 1.5 0 0 0 Gran. 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
E F13 19 2 0 0.5 0 0 0 ND 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
F24 20 2 1 2 0 0 0 ND 2 0 1 0 1 0 1.5 1 0
F27 14* 1.5 1 3 0 0 1 ND 0 0 1 1.5 0 1 0 0 0
F36 20 1.5 0 1 0 0 0 ND 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
F42 5* 1 0 0 0 p 1 2 ND 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
F43 20 1.5 0 2 1 1 1 ND 0 0 1 0 0 1 1.5 0 0
F51 8* 0.5 0 0 1 3 2 ND 0 3 0 1.5 u 1 0 0 0 0
F55 3* 0 0 0 1 0 3 ND 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
  1. Unspecific findings seen in most of the 28 challenged animals included a pale (26/28) and enlarged spleen (24/28) with severe lymphoid depletion (20/28) and a marked lymphcytolysis in the remaining follicles (20/28), bloated foamy macrophages in spleen (23/28) and in liver (27/28) which shows also an extramedullary hematopoiesis (24/28).
  2. Abbreviations: Grp (group); ID (identification number); Dpi (days post infection); * (died/euthanized before end of the trial); Inject. (virus injection site); Vacc. (vaccination site); HE (hematoxylin and eosin stain); IHC (immunohistochemistry); Qual (quality); Deg (degree); Art (arteriitis); PALS (periarteriolar lymphoid sheat); Neu (neuritis); Nep (nephritis); Hep (hepatitis); Ent (enteritis); Pan (pancreatitis); Ser (serositis); Sep (septicemia); Nsp. (non-suppurative inflammation); Fol. (follicular aggregated mononuclear cells); Gran. (granulomatous inflammation); p (petechia); u (uratnephritis); c (detection of coccidial parasites); h (hemorrhagic).
  3. The numbers for HE examination indicate a weak (0.5), mild (1), mild to moderate (1.5), moderate (2), moderate to severe (2.5) and severe (3) alteration. The score for IHC indicate no positive cells (0), ≤1% positive (1), >1% and ≤5% positive (2) and >5% positive tissue structures (3).