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Table 6 Upstream regulators and their biological functions

From: Gene expression profiling of porcine mammary epithelial cells after challenge with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in vitro

3 h E. coli- challenged vs. unchallenged control cells p -value of overlap
IL1B (proinflammatory; proliferation; differentiation; apoptosis) 6.80E-23
lipopolysaccharide (increase of TLR4 expression; innate immune response) 8.75E-22
IRAK4 (activation of NF-kB; innate immune response) 6.93E-21
TNF (proinflammat.; proliferation; differentiation; apoptosis; lipid metabolism; coagulation) 1.17E-20
cycloheximide (inhibitor of protein synthesis; apoptosis, cell death) 3.04E-20
3 hS. aureus- challenged vs. unchallenged control cells p -value of overlap
beta-estradiol (proliferation; growth; apoptosis; breast cancer signaling) 1.20E-10
ESR1 (growth; proliferation; transcription; transactivation) 2.00E-09
U0126 (inhibitor of MAP kinase kinase; apoptosis; proliferation; migration) 3.74E-09
3-methylcholanthrene (carcinogen; transformation; proliferation) 1.59E-08
paclitaxel (antimitotic; apoptosis; growth; survival; cell viability) 2.55E-08
24 h E. coli- challenged vs. unchallenged control cells p -value of overlap
PD98059 (inhibitor of MAP kinase kinase; apoptosis; proliferation; migration) 1.98E-11
IKBKB (activation of NF-kB; apoptosis; proliferation) 8.45E-11
TGFB1 (proliferation; differentiation; adhesion; migration; apoptosis; growth) 1.47E-10
RAF1 (activation of MEK1/2; apoptosis; proliferation; differentiation; cell cycle; migration) 1.90E-10
HGF (activation of tyrosine kinases; migration; proliferation; scattering; apoptosis; growth) 9.20E-10
24 hS. aureus- challenged vs. unchallenged control cells p -value of overlap
RAF1 (activation of MEK1/2; apoptosis; proliferation; differentiation; cell cycle; migration) 2.30E-09
E2F1 (apoptosis; proliferation; cell cycle) 3.32E-08
TP53 (tumor suppressor; apoptosis; cell cycle; growth; proliferation) 3.45E-07
INSR (proliferation; growth; differentiation; migration; mitogenesis) 9.61E-07
PD98059 (inhibitor of MAP kinase kinase; apoptosis; proliferation; migration) 1.24E-06
  1. Top five categories of upstream regulators and their functions in PMEC at 3 hpc and at 24 hpc with E. coli and S. aureus, respectively, compared with unchallenged control cells with their respective p-value of overlap in each class obtained from IPA software.